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Climent N.,Service of Immunology | Climent N.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS AIDS Research Group | Guerra S.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Guerra S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC) and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α). MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA) and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B. © 2011 Climent et al. Source

Climent N.,Service of Immunology | Climent N.,AIDS Research Group | Munier S.,CNRS Institute of Chemistry | Pique N.,University of Barcelona | And 10 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Since recent data suggest that nanoparticles and modified vaccinia ankara (MVA) vectors could play a pivotal role in HIV-1 therapeutics and vaccine design, in an ex vivo model of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), we compared two different loading strategies with HIV-1 vaccine vehicles, either viral or synthetic derived. We used polylactic acid (PLA) colloidal biodegradable particles, coated with HIV Gag antigens (p24), and MVA expressing Gag (rMVA-gag and rMVA-gag/trans membrane) or Tat, Nef and Rev genes (rMVA tat. +. rev and rMVA nef).PLA-p24 captured by MDDCs from HIV-1 individuals induced a slight degree of MDDC maturation, cytokine and chemokine secretion and migration towards a gradient of CCL19 chemokine and highly increased HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell proliferation compared with p24 alone. After complete maturation induction of PLA-p24-pulsed MDDCs, maximal migration towards a gradient of CCL19 chemokine and induction of HIV-specific T-cell proliferation (two-fold higher for CD4+ than CD8+) and cytokine secretion (IFN-γ and IL-2) in the co-culture were observed.Upon exposure to MVA-gag, MDDCs produced cytokines and chemokines and maintained their capacity to migrate to a gradient of CCL19. MDDCs infected with MVA-gag and MVA-gag trans-membrane were able to induce HIV-specific CD8+ proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α.We conclude that both HIV antigens loading strategies (PLA-p24 nanoparticles or MVA expressing HIV genes) induce HIV-1-specific T-cell responses, which are able to kill autologous gag-expressing cells. Thus, they are plausible candidates for the development of anti-HIV vaccines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rodriguez-Garcia M.,Services of Immunology | Rodriguez-Garcia M.,Institute dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Rodriguez-Garcia M.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Climent N.,Services of Immunology | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Defensins are natural endogenous antimicrobial peptides with potent anti-HIV activity and immunomodulatory effects. We recently demonstrated that immature dendritic cells (DC) produce α-defensins1-3 and that α-defensins1-3 modulate DC generation and maturation. Since DC-HIV interaction plays a critical role during the first steps of HIV infection, we investigated the possible impact of α-defensins1-3 production by DC on disease progression. Methodology/Principal Findings:Monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) were analyzed comparatively in healthy controls (HC) and HIV-infected patients, including untreated "elite" and "viremic" controllers, untreated viremic non-controllers and antiretroviral-treated patients. We found that production of α-defensins1-3 was significantly increased in MDDC from HIV-infected patients versus HC, and this increase was mainly due to that observed in controllers, while in non-controllers the increase was not statistically significant (controllers vs. HC, p<0.005; controllers vs. non-controllers p<0.05). Secreted α-defensins1-3 by immature MDDC positively correlated with CD4 T cell counts in controllers, but not in non-controllers. Moreover, independently of their clinical classification, HIV-infected patients with higher α-defensins1-3 secretion by immature MDDC showed slower disease progression, measured as no decrease in the number of CD4+ T-cells below 350 cell/mm3, lower increase of plasma viral load and no initiation of treatment over time. Plasma alpha-defensins1-3 levels lacked any relationship with immunologic and virologic parameters. Conclusions/Significance:High production of α-defensins1-3 by immature DCs appears as a host protective factor against progression of HIV-1infection, suggesting potential diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive implications. This protective effect may arise from the activity of α-defensins1-3 to damage the virions prior and/or after their internalization by immature DC, and hence favoring a more efficient viral processing and presentation to HIV-specific CD4+ T cells, without or with a minor rate of transmission of infectious HIV-1 virions. © 2010 Rodriguez-Garcia et al. Source

Naval-Macabuhay I.,University of Barcelona | Casanova V.,University of Barcelona | Navarro G.,University of Barcelona | Garcia F.,Institute Dinvestigacions Biomediques August Pi nyer Aids Research Group And Catalonian Center For Hiv Vaccines | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2016

Regulatory T cells have an important role in immune suppression during HIV-1 infection. As regulatory T cells produce the immunomodulatory molecule adenosine, our aim here was to assess the potential of adenosine removal to revert the suppression of anti-HIV responses exerted by regulatory T cells. The experimental setup consisted of ex vivo cocultures of T and dendritic cells, to which adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes adenosine, was added. In cells from healthy individuals, adenosine hydrolysis decreased CD4+CD25hiregulatory T cells. Addition of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, significantly decreased CD4+CD25lo cells, confirming a modulatory role of adenosine acting via adenosine receptors. In autologous cocultures of T cells with HIV-1-pulsed dendritic cells, addition of adenosine deaminase led to a significant decrease of HIV-1-induced CD4+CD25hi forkhead box p3+ cells and to a significant enhancement of the HIV-1-specific CD4+responder T cells. An increase in the effector response was confirmed by the enhanced production of CD4+ and CD8+ CD25-CD45RO+ memory cell generation and secretion of Th1 cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-15 and chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5. These ex vivo results show, in a physiologically relevant model, that adenosine deaminase is able to enhance HIV-1 effector responses markedly. The possibility to revert regulatory T cell-mediated inhibition of immune responses by use of adenosine deaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes adenosine, merits attention for restoring T lymphocyte function in HIV-1 infection. © Society for Leukocyte Biology. Source

Casanova V.,University of Barcelona | Naval-Macabuhay I.,University of Barcelona | Massanella M.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol | Blanco J.,Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

ADA is an enzyme implicated in purine metabolism, and is critical to ensure normal immune function. Its congenital deficit leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA binding to adenosine receptors on dendritic cell surface enables T-cell costimulation through CD26 crosslinking, which enhances T-cell activation and proliferation. Despite a large body of work on the actions of the ecto-enzyme ADA on T-cell activation, questions arise on whether ADA can also modulate dendritic cell maturation. To this end we investigated the effects of ADA on human monocyte derived dendritic cell biology. Our results show that both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities of ADA are implicated in the enhancement of CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and CCR7 expression on immature dendritic cells from healthy and HIV-infected individuals. These ADA-mediated increases in CD83 and costimulatory molecule expression is concomitant to an enhanced IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8(IL-8), CCL3(MIP1-α), CCL4(MIP-1β) and CCL5(RANTES) cytokine/chemokine secretion both in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and to an altered apoptotic death in cells from HIV-infected individuals. Consistently, ADA-mediated actions on iDCs are able to enhance allogeneic CD4 and CD8-T-cell proliferation, globally yielding increased iDC immunogenicity. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADA would promote enhanced and correctly polarized T-cell responses in strategies targeting asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. © 2012 Casanova et al. Source

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