de Oliveira F.A.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Vanessa Oliveira Silva C.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Damascena N.P.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Passos R.O.,Federal University of Sergipe |
And 9 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) are inflammation markers and have been poorly described in infectious disease. In this prospective study, we describe the sera kinetics of these two molecules in the course of treatment follow up in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL).Methods: Sera from VL patients were collected before and during follow up of regular Antimony treatment. sCD40L and MMP-9 were measured by Luminex assay. Paired analysis by Wilcoxon signed test was used for comparison of values of the same subjects before and after initiation of treatment. Correlations between clinical data and parasite load with the serum levels of sCD40L and MMP-9 were performed by Spearman test. Tests were considered statistically significant if the probability of a type I error was less than 5% (p-value < 0.05).Results: While sCD40L and MMP-9 were not observed in sera from non endemic controls which are at low risk of Leishmania chagasi infection, elevated levels were observed in sera from VL patients, and an increase in sCD40L and MMP-9 levels were detectable during the follow-up of VL patients undergoing antimony treatment. sCD40L levels were also high in individuals living in endemic settings at high risk of infection (endemic controls). Additionally, negative correlations were found between spleen sizes and MMP-9 before treatment and sCD40L at day 15 of treatment. Negative correlations were also found between parasite load with both sCD40L and MMP-9.Conclusion: Serum sCD40L and MMP-9 are identified as new and simple biomarkers in two situations: (i) monitoring the success of therapy and (ii) predicting favorable clinical outcome of human VL. © 2013 de Oliveira et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Vazquez C.M.P.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Netto R.S.M.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Barbosa K.B.F.,Federal University of Sergipe |
de Moura T.R.,Federal University of Sergipe |
And 5 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular bacillus of airborne transmission. The disease affects the skin and peripheral nerves and can cause neurological sequelae. The bacillus multiplies slowly in the host and the disease probably occurs due to malfunctioning in host immune response. This review addresses the role of some specific micronutrients in the immune response, such as Vitamins A, D, E, C, Zinc and Selenium, detailing their mechanisms of actions in infectious diseases, and in leprosy. The immune response to pathogens releases harmful substances, which lead to tissue damage. This review discusses how a decreased level of antioxidants may contribute to an increased oxidative stress and complications of infectious diseases and leprosy. As the nutrients have a regulatory effect in the innate and adaptative immune responses, a perfect balance in their concentrations is important to improve the immune response against the pathogens.