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Sohn K.M.,Chungnam National University | Baek J.-Y.,Infectious Disease Research Institute IDRI
Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

We report the first case of true Delftia lacustris bacteremia in a patient with pheochromocytoma. The organism was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Aperipheral intravenous catheter was the suspected source of infection, and the patient was successfully treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. We also present a review of the literature describing bacteremia caused by Delftia species.

Qiong-Hua P.,Leprosy Hospital | Zhong-Yi Z.,Institute of Dermatology of Honghe Prefecture | Jun Y.,Yunnan Provincial CDC | Yan W.,Capital Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013

Leprosy is a disabling chronic infection, with insidious onset that often evades early detection. In order to detect new leprosy cases in a timely manner, we conducted surveillance visits in some difficult-to-reach mountain areas in South West China where the disease is still prevalent. Our data confirm that Chinese multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients have strong antibody responses against Mycobacterium leprae antigens ND-O-BSA and LID-1. Contacts of clinically diagnosed patients were then monitored at regular intervals by both physical examinations and the laboratory determination of antibody responses in sera collected during these examinations. Elevations in antibody titers indicated the onset of MB leprosy in one of the contacts, and diagnosis was subsequently confirmed on physical examination. Our data indicate that rising antibody titers can be used as a trigger for physical examination or increased monitoring of particular individuals in order to provide early leprosy diagnosis. © 2013 Pan Qiong-Hua et al.

Wen Y.,Capital Medical University | You Y.G.,Capital Medical University | Yuan L.-C.,Capital Medical University | Yuan Y.H.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Leprosy is the disabling outcome of chronic infection with Mycobacterium leprae. The disease often evades early detection, particularly now that fewer clinicians are able to confidently diagnose the disease following the integration of leprosy control measures within general health services in many countries. Although leprosy is officially eliminated in China, endemic regions remain in some difficult-to-reach, underdeveloped areas in Southwest China. In order to better understand the extent of M. leprae infection and identify new leprosy cases in a timely manner, simple tools that can detect infection and the early disease are required. In this report we evaluated the performance of antigen-specific ELISA, the NDO-LID rapid diagnostic test, and antigen-specific whole blood assays (WBA) as potential diagnostic tools. Our data support the use of antibody detection tests and WBA to facilitate the diagnosis of multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy, respectively. These tools could be invaluable for increased, but simplified, monitoring of individuals in order to provide referrals for clinical exam and early leprosy diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Yan Wen et al.

Santini-Oliveira M.,Instituto Nacional Of Infectologia Evandro Chagas Ini | Coler R.N.,Infectious Disease Research Institute IDRI | Parra J.,Fiocruz MS | Veloso V.,Instituto Nacional Of Infectologia Evandro Chagas Ini | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Design: Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant 14. kDa, fatty acid-binding protein(FABP) from Schistosoma mansoni (rSm14) were evaluated through an open, non-placebo-controlled, dose-standardized trial, performed at a single research site. The vaccine was formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) adjuvant in an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) and investigated in 20 male volunteers from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty microgram rSm14 with 10. μg GLA-SE (rSm14/GLA-SE)/dose were given intramuscularly three times with 30-day intervals. Participants were assessed clinically, biochemically and immunologically for up to 120 days. Methods: Participants were screened for inclusion by physical examination, haematology and blood chemistry; then followed to assess adverse events and immunogenicity. Sera were tested for IgG (total and isotypes) and IgE. T cell induction of cytokines IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IFNγ and TNFα was assessed by Milliplex kit and flow cytometry. Results: The investigational product showed high tolerability; some self-limited, mild adverse events were observed during and after vaccine administration. Significant increases in Sm14-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were observed 30 days after the first vaccination with specific IgG2 and IgG4 after 60 days. An increase in IgE antibodies was not observed at any time point. The IgG response was augmented after the second dose and 88% of all vaccinated subjects had developed high anti-Sm14 IgG titres 90 days after the first injection. From day 60 and onwards, there was an increase in CD4+ T cells producing single cytokines, particularly TNFα and IL-2, with no significant increase of multi-functional TH1 cells. Conclusion: Clinical trial data on tolerability and specific immune responses after vaccination of adult, male volunteers in a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis with rSm14/GLA-SE, support this product as a safe, strongly immunogenic vaccine against schistosomiasis paving the way for follow-up Phase 2 trials. Study registration ID: NCT01154049 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Mukhtar M.,University of Khartoum | Abdoun A.,University of Khartoum | Ahmed A.E.,University of Khartoum | Ghalib H.,Infectious Disease Research Institute IDRI | And 5 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on rK39 antigen showed suboptimal sensitivity in East Africa. A prospective clinical cohort study in Sudan was designed to validate a novel rK28-based RDT for Leishmania donovani VL. Methods: Patients (n=285) suspected of VL by residency, fever for =2 weeks, splenomegaly with no prior reported VL, and negative for malaria were consecutively enrolled at three Sudanese sites in 2012-2013 and informed consent obtained. Two human readers, who were blinded to the clinical status and other RDT results, evaluated patient whole blood (WB) and serum on the rK28 RDT. Based on Leishmania parasite detection in lymph node or bone marrow aspirates (Giemsa-stained smears or culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium), patients were categorized as VL cases (n=200) or VL controls (n=85). Results: The rK28 RDT had high specificity using either WB (100% [85/85]) or serum (97.6% [83/85]) and exhibited greater sensitivity (WB, 92.5% [185/200]; serum, 94.5% [189/200]) than a direct agglutination test performed with the same sera (92.9% [79/85] and 83.5% [167/200] for specificity and sensitivity, respectively). Two blinded readers scored a given WB or serum sample the same on the rK28 RDT 99.6% and 100% of the time, respectively. A reader scored each individual donor's paired WB and serum rK28 RDT results the same 97.2% of the time. Conclusions: An inexpensive rK28 RDT that performs robustly with WB or serum will be valuable for diagnosing cases of VL in East Africa. © The Author 2015.

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