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Andreani G.,Infectious Disease Research Center
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2012

Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) are among the most important health problems worldwide, being responsible for a total of 4 million deaths annually. Due to their extensive overlap in developing regions, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, co-infections with malaria and HIV-1 are common, but the interplay between the two diseases is poorly understood. Epidemiological reports have suggested that malarial infection transiently enhances HIV-1 replication and increases HIV-1 viral load in co-infected individuals. Because this viremia stays high for several weeks after treatment with antimalarials, this phenomenon could have an impact on disease progression and transmission. The cellular immunological mechanisms behind these observations have been studied only scarcely. The few in vitro studies investigating the impact of malaria on HIV-1 have demonstrated that exposure to soluble malarial antigens can increase HIV-1 infection and reactivation in immune cells. However, these studies used whole cell extracts of P. falciparum schizont stage parasites and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), making it hard to decipher which malarial component(s) was responsible for the observed effects and what the target host cells were. Recent work has demonstrated that exposure of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells to the malarial pigment hemozoin increased their ability to transfer HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells, but that it decreased HIV-1 infection of macrophages(8). To shed light on this complex process, a systematic analysis of the interactions between the malaria parasite and HIV-1 in different relevant human primary cell populations is critically needed. Several techniques for investigating the impact of HIV-1 on the phagocytosis of micro-organisms and the effect of such pathogens on HIV-1 replication have been described. We here present a method to investigate the effects of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes on the replication of HIV-1 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants.

Shakeri F.,Islamic Azad University at Lahijan | Shojai A.,Islamic Azad University at Lahijan | Golalipour M.,Golestan University | Alang S.R.,Islamic Azad University at Lahijan | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2010

Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic factor whose encoding gene, spa, shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study the spa gene variation in S. aureus isolated from healthy carriers and patients was studied, We also compared this variation among MRSA with MSSA strains. 208 strains of Staphylococcus aureus which we were isolated from Gorgan, north of Iran were studied, 121 cases from patients and 87 cases from healthy carriers, 59 out of them were MRSA and 149 MSSA. Samples DNA were extracted and amplified by specific primer of spa gene. In 4 (3.8%) strains of them no spa gene was detected, and 10.6% had a dual band (1200 and 1400 bp). In strains with one band, the length of spa gene differed from 1150 to 1500 bp. The most prevalent length was 1350-1400 bp (37%). The frequencies of short spa bands (1150-1200 bp) in patients strains were significantly higher. In 4 (3.8%) strains of them no spa gene was detected, and 10.6% had a dual band (1200 and 1400 bp). In strains with one band, the length of spa gene differed from 1150 to 1500 bp. The most prevalent length was 1350-1400 bp (37%). The frequencies of short spa bands (1150-1200 bp) in patients strains were significantly higher. The spa gene length of 1350-1400 bp in MSSA was more than in MRSA strains (P< .05). The average length of spa in isolated strains from urinary tract infections was more than others. It is concluded that the length of spa gene depends either on resistance to Methicillin or the source of S. aureus isolation. Copyright © 2010 Fatemeh Shakeri et al.

Nam G.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim Y.S.,Infectious Disease Research Center | Choi K.I.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

A novel series of 9-O-arylpropenyloxime ketolide was synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. This series of ketolide exhibited potent activity against clinically isolated gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Straptococcus Pyogenes. © 2010.

Sobouti B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Fallah S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mobayen M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Noorbakhsh S.,Infectious Disease Research Center | Ghavami Y.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

Conclusion: These data indicate that vertical transmission of mycoplasma and ureaplasma are prevalent in newborns. Since these organisms cause serious infections in neonates, it would be better to perform screening tests in pregnant women before the delivery in order to prevent transmission to neonates and consequent infections and morbidities among them.Background and Objectives: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important opportunistic pathogens that cause urogenital infections and accelerated newborn delivery in pregnant women. Moreover genital mycoplasmas have been implicated in different neonatal diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and transmission rate of these two organisms in pregnant women and their neonates.Materials and Methods: Nasotracheal and pharyngeal specimens of 165 newborns hospitalized at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Rasoul Akram Hospital (during 2010 – 2011) were assessed by PCR to detect M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Moreover, PCR of vaginal specimens from their mothers were obtained to determine the prevalence of these organisms in pregnant women and rate of transmission to their newborns. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Totally, the results of PCR were positive in 33 newborns (20%). Vaginal colonization among the mothers was found to be 15% (25/165) for U. urealyticum and 15% (25/165) for M. hominis. The transmission rate to their infants was 72% and 60% for U. urealyticum and M. hominis, respectively. © 2014 Tehran University of Medical Science. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mahin J.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Parivash D.,Infectious Disease Research Center | Madani A.H.,Infectious Disease Research Center | Madani A.H.,Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Problem statement: As number of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) increases, caring for them is a new rising problem. The World Health Organization encourages caring these people at home. Patients themselves also prefer to stay at home than staying in hospital. Adequate knowledge and positive attitude are important factors in providing better care for a patient. Approach: This study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and describe attitudes existing between family members of PLWAs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on PLWAs to assess the basic level of knowledge and attitude regarding AIDS. One hundred family members of PLWAs were selected using simple random sampling. A three-part questionnaire was delivered to measure HIV/AIDS-related attitude and knowledge. Results: Mean score of participants were 10.69±2.05 of a maximum of 14 points in knowledge. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite high in the study group; Mean score was 25.42±6.05 from a maximum of 40 points in attitude. Female gender, higher income and education level were associated with a greater level of knowledge. Parents in comparison with other relatives and persons older than 60 usually had lower level of knowledge. Patients with higher income or education level also had more positive attitude toward patient. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the family members of patients living with AIDS have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Most of them have good attitudes toward person with HIV/AIDS. However, there are some misconceptions about the routes of transmission that can be problems on the way of providing home-based care. © 2010 Science Publications.

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