Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States

Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit

Ames, IA, United States

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Sacco R.E.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit | Nonnecke B.J.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit | Palmer M.V.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Waters W.R.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Deficiency of serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 has been related to increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of low respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. The neonatal calf model of RSV infection shares many features in common with RSV infection in infants and children. In the present study, we hypothesized that calves with low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3) would be more susceptible to RSV infection than calves with high circulating levels of 25(OH)D 3. Calves were fed milk replacer diets with different levels of vitamin D for a 10 wk period to establish two treatment groups, one with high (177 ng/ml) and one with low (32.5 ng/ml) circulating 25(OH)D 3. Animals were experimentally infected via aerosol challenge with RSV. Data on circulating 25(OH)D 3 levels showed that high and low concentrations of 25(OH)D 3 were maintained during infection. At necropsy, lung lesions due to RSV were similar in the two vitamin D treatment groups. We show for the first time that RSV infection activates the vitamin D intracrine pathway in the inflamed lung. Importantly, however, we observed that cytokines frequently inhibited by this pathway in vitro are, in fact, either significantly upregulated (IL-12p40) or unaffected (IFN-γ) in the lungs of RSV-infected calves with high circulating levels of 25(OH)D 3. Our data indicate that while vitamin D does have an immunomodulatory role during RSV infection, there was no significant impact on pathogenesis during the early phases of RSV infection. Further examination of the potential effects of vitamin D status on RSV disease resolution will require longer-term studies with immunologically sufficient and deficient vitamin D levels.


McGill J.L.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Unit | Sacco R.E.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Unit | Baldwin C.L.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Telfer J.C.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence suggests that γδ T cells play a critical role in the early response to Mycobacterium bovis and may be key in bridging innate and adaptive immunity following infection. In vitro, γδ T cells proliferate and produce robust amounts of IFNγ in response to complex, protein and non-protein mycobacterial antigens including M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD), heat shock proteins and cell wall components such as mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan (mAGP). Vaccination with Bacille Calumette-Guerin (BCG), as well as infection with virulent M. bovis, induces an increase in the frequency and activation of WC1+ γδ T cells circulating in the blood. Gamma delta T cells are rapidly recruited to the lungs and draining lymph nodes following BCG vaccination, and accumulate in developing lesions early following M. bovis infection. In Severe Combined Immuno-deficient (SCID)-bo mice, depletion of γδ T cells prior to M. bovis infection results in impaired granuloma formation, suggesting a role for γδ T cells in immune cell recruitment and lesion development. In vivo depletion of WC1+ γδ T cells from calves prior to M. bovis infection results in significantly reduced levels of M. bovis specific IgG2 and IFNγ, and increased IL-4 production compared to non-depleted control animals, suggesting that γδ T cells may also play a role in shaping the character of the adaptive M. bovis specific immune response. Whereas it is clear that γδ T cells are responding during M. bovis infection, much remains to be understood about their function in vivo and their ability to shape the innate and adaptive immune responses. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of γδ T cell biology with a particular emphasis on the immune response of γδ T cells in cattle during M. bovis infection. © 2014.


Sacco R.E.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Unit | McGill J.L.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Unit | Palmer M.V.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Lippolis J.D.,Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2012

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Wilson-Welder J.H.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Wilson-Welder J.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Elliott M.K.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Zuerner R.L.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: Bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis (DD) is the leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle and represents a serious welfare and economic burden. Found primarily in high production dairy cattle worldwide, DD is characterized by the development of an often painful red, raw ulcerative or papillomatous lesion frequently located near the interdigital cleft and above the bulbs of the heel. While the exact etiology is unknown, several spirochete species have been isolated from lesion material. Four isolates of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes were isolated from dairy cows in Iowa. Given the distinct differences in host, environmental niche, and disease association, a closer analysis of phenotypic characteristics, growth characteristics, and genomic sequences of T. phagedenis, a human genitalia commensal, and the Iowa DD isolates was undertaken. Results: Phenotypically, these isolates range from 8.0 to 9.7 μm in length with 6-8 flagella on each end. These isolates, like T. phagedenis, are strictly anaerobic, require serum and volatile fatty acids for growth, and are capable of fermenting fructose, mannitol, pectin, mannose, ribose, maltose, and glucose. Major glucose fermentation products produced are formate, acetate, and butyrate. Further study was conducted with a single isolate, 4A, showing an optimal growth pH of 7.0 (range of 6-8.5) and an optimal growth temperature of 40°C (range of 29°C-43°C). Comparison of partial genomic contigs of isolate 4A and contigs of T. phagedenis F0421 revealed > 95% amino acid sequence identity with amino acid sequence of 4A. In silico DNA-DNA whole genome hybridization and BLAT analysis indicated a DDH estimate of >80% between isolate 4A and T. phagedenis F0421, and estimates of 52.5% or less when compared to the fully sequenced genomes of other treponeme species. Conclusion: Using both physiological, biochemical and genomic analysis, there is a lack of evidence for difference between T. phagedenis and isolate 4A. The description of Treponema phagedenis should be expanded from human genital skin commensal to include being an inhabitant within DD lesions in cattle. © 2013 Wilson-Welder et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Salford, University College Dublin, Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit, Agricultural University of Krakow and OIE Leptospirosis Reference Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.


PubMed | University College Dublin, Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit and Agricultural University of Krakow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2016

We report here the complete genome sequence of Leptospira alstonii serovar Room22 strain GWTS #1. This is the first isolate of L. alstonii to be cultured from a mammal and in western Europe, and it represents a new serovar of pathogenic leptospires.


PubMed | U.S. Department of Agriculture, Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit and Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016

Profiling of 16S rRNA gene sequences is an important tool for testing hypotheses in complex microbial communities, and analysis methods must be updated and validated as sequencing technologies advance. In host-associated bacterial communities, the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene is a valuable region to profile because it provides a useful level of taxonomic resolution; however, use of Illumina MiSeq data for experiments targeting this region needs validation.Using a MiSeq machine and the version 3 (3002) chemistry, we sequenced the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene within a mock community. Nineteen bacteria and one archaeon comprised the mock community, and 12 replicate amplifications of the community were performed and sequenced. Sequencing the large fragment (490bp) that encompasses V1-V3 yielded a higher error rate (3.6%) than has been reported when using smaller fragment sizes. This higher error rate was due to a large number of sequences that occurred only one or two times among all mock community samples. Removing sequences that occurred one time among all samples (singletons) reduced the error rate to 1.4%. Diversity estimates of the mock community containing all sequences were inflated, whereas estimates following singleton removal more closely reflected the actual mock community membership. A higher percentage of the sequences could be taxonomically assigned after singleton and doubleton sequences were removed, and the assignments reflected the membership of the input DNA.Sequencing the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the MiSeq platform may require additional sequence curation in silico, and improved error rates and diversity estimates show that removing low-frequency sequences is reasonable. When datasets have a high number of singletons, these singletons can be removed from the analysis without losing statistical power while reducing error and improving microbiota assessment.


Looft T.,Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit | Allen H.K.,Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit | Cantarel B.L.,Baylor Research Institute | Levine U.Y.,Food Safety and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2014

Disturbance of the beneficial gut microbial community is a potential collateral effect of antibiotics, which have many uses in animal agriculture (disease treatment or prevention and feed efficiency improvement). Understanding antibiotic effects on bacterial communities at different intestinal locations is essential to realize the full benefits and consequences of in-feed antibiotics. In this study, we defined the lumenal and mucosal bacterial communities from the small intestine (ileum) and large intestine (cecum and colon) plus feces, and characterized the effects of in-feed antibiotics (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine and penicillin (ASP250)) on these communities. 16S rRNA gene sequence and metagenomic analyses of bacterial membership and functions revealed dramatic differences between small and large intestinal locations, including enrichment of Firmicutes and phage-encoding genes in the ileum. The large intestinal microbiota encoded numerous genes to degrade plant cell wall components, and these genes were lacking in the ileum. The mucosa-associated ileal microbiota harbored greater bacterial diversity than the lumen but similar membership to the mucosa of the large intestine, suggesting that most gut microbes can associate with the mucosa and might serve as an inoculum for the lumen. The collateral effects on the microbiota of antibiotic-fed animals caused divergence from that of control animals, with notable changes being increases in Escherichia coli populations in the ileum, Lachnobacterium spp. in all gut locations, and resistance genes to antibiotics not administered. Characterizing the differential metabolic capacities and response to perturbation at distinct intestinal locations will inform strategies to improve gut health and food safety. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.


Wilson-Welder J.H.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Frank A.T.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Hornsby R.L.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Olsen S.C.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Alt D.P.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains with bovine PMNs did not affect Leptospira viability as measured by limiting dilution culture. This is in contrast to previously reported results of innate inflammatory activation by Leptospira in human and other animal models, or the activation and interaction of bovine PMNs with Escherichia coli and other bacterial pathogens. While it could be hypothesized that variations in innate receptor recognition, specifically variance in toll-like receptor 2, could underlie the observed reduction of activation in bovine PMNs, additional studies would be needed to explore this possibility. Reduction in neutrophil responses may help to establish nearly asymptomatic chronic Leptospira infection of cattle. This study emphasizes the importance of studying host-pathogen relationships in the appropriate species as extrapolation from other animal models may be incorrect and confounded by differences in the host responses. © 2016 Wilson-Welder, Frank, Hornsby, Olsen and Alt.


Tatum F.M.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Tabatabai L.B.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit | Briggs R.E.,Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

It has been demonstrated that fhaB2 (filamentous hemagglutinin) is an important virulence factor for Pasteurella multocida in development of fowl cholera disease and that vaccination with recombinant FHAB2 peptides derived from P. multocida, P-1059 (serotype A:3) protects turkeys against P-1059 challenge. Here the hypothesis that vaccination with the same rFHAB2 peptides could cross-protect turkeys against challenge with P. multocida 73 (serotype A:1) was examined. Three rFHAB2 peptides were purified and pooled, and two doses, consisting of equal amounts of each, were administered subcutaneously to turkeys at 2-wk intervals. Simultaneously, control birds were administered sham inoculations. One week later, vaccinates and controls were challenged intranasally with P-1059 or 73. The results showed vaccination with rFHAB2 peptides significantly protected turkeys against lethal challenge from both P. multocida serotypes (P < 0.01). The high degree of FHAB2 conservation across serotypes likely allow the observed cross-protection. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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