West Long Branch, United States
West Long Branch, United States

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Shebl F.M.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Pfeiffer R.M.,Biostatistics Branch | Buckett D.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Buckett D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Among 1369 Urban Health Study participants, we evaluated genetic models for the association of IL28B genotype (rs12979860 and rs8099917) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance. For rs12979860, adjusted odds ratios for spontaneous HCV clearance were as follows: IL28B-CC, 3.88 (P <. 001); IL28B-CT, 1.48 (P =. 08). On the basis of Akaike information criteria values and χ 2 tests, a supra-additive (quadratic) model fit these data best. Models based on rs8099917 provided poorer fit. Evidence that a supra-additive rs12979860-based model best fits the association of IL28B-genotype with HCV clearance may improve clinical prediction models and foster a better understanding of functional mechanisms underlying this association. © 2011 The Author.


Pine S.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Pine S.R.,University of New Brunswick | Mechanic L.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Mechanic L.E.,Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

BackgroundPrevious studies that were based primarily on small numbers of patients suggested that certain circulating proinflammatory cytokines may be associated with lung cancer; however, large independent studies are lacking.MethodsAssociations between serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels and lung cancer were analyzed among 270 case patients and 296 control subjects participating in the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study. Results were validated in 532 case patients and 595 control subjects in a nested case-control study within the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Association with C-reactive protein (CRP), a systemic inflammation biomarker, was also analyzed. Associations between biomarkers and lung cancer were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for smoking, stage, histology, age, and sex. The 10-year standardized absolute risks of lung cancer were estimated using a weighted Cox regression model.ResultsSerum IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the highest quartile were associated with lung cancer in the NCI-MD study (IL-6, odds ratio [OR] = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88 to 5.77; IL-8, OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.19 to 3.57) and with lung cancer risk in the PLCO study (IL-6, OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.10; IL-8, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10 to 2.24), compared with the lowest quartile. In the PLCO study, increased IL-6 levels were only associated with lung cancer diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection, whereas increased IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer diagnosed more than 2 years after blood collection (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.13). The 10-year standardized absolute risks of lung cancer in the PLCO study were highest among current smokers with high IL-8 and CRP levels (absolute risk = 8.01%, 95% CI = 5.77% to 11.05%).ConclusionsAlthough increased levels of both serum IL-6 and IL-8 are associated with lung cancer, only IL-8 levels are associated with lung cancer risk several years before diagnosis. Combination of IL-8 and CRP are more robust biomarkers than either marker alone in predicting subsequent lung cancer. © 2011 The Author.


Kreimer A.R.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Rodriguez A.C.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | Hildesheim A.,Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch | Herrero R.,Proyecto Epidemiologico Guanacaste | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background Three-dose regimens for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expensive and difficult to complete, especially in settings where the need for cervical cancer prevention is greatest. Methods We evaluated the vaccine efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine Cervarix in our Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine and were followed for incident HPV16 or HPV18 infection that persisted in visits that were 10 or more months apart (median follow-up 4.2 years). After excluding women who had no follow-up or who were HPV16 and HPV18 DNA positive at enrollment, 5967 women received three vaccine doses (2957 HPV vaccine vs 3010 control vaccine), 802 received two doses (422 HPV vs 380 control), and 384 received one dose (196 HPV vs 188 control). Reasons for receiving fewer doses and other pre-and post-randomization characteristics were balanced within each dosage group between women receiving the HPV and control vaccines.ResultsIncident HPV16 or HPV18 infections that persisted for 1 year were unrelated to dosage of the control vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was 80.9% for three doses of the HPV vaccine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.1% to 87.7%; 25 and 133 events in the HPV and control arms, respectively), 84.1% for two doses (95% CI = 50.2% to 96.3%; 3 and 17 events), and 100% for one dose (95% CI = 66.5% to 100%; 0 and 10 events).ConclusionFour years after vaccination of women who appeared to be uninfected, this nonrandomized analysis suggests that two doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine, and maybe even one dose, are as protective as three doses. © 2011 The Author.


PubMed | Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch . and National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir promises tremendous benefits, but high cost may impede implementation of this regimen. Subgroups with excellent response to 8 weeks of treatment might respond to a shorter course. In ION-3, 423 previously untreated HCV genotype 1-infected patients without cirrhosis had outcome data after receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8 weeks. After reanalyzing published ION-3 data, we found that sustained virologic response (SVR) rates varied significantly by gender (P = .002) and rs12979860 genotype (P trend = .03), exceeding 98% in women and rs12979860-CC individuals. The very high SVR rates in these subgroups suggest that these factors might be considered in selecting patients to receive 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and support shorter trials of this regimen in selected patients.

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