Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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PubMed | Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania and Infection Prevention and Control.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society | Year: 2015

The resurgence of pertussis is contributing to mounting healthcare worker (HCW) exposures, especially within pediatric outpatient settings. Infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for ambulatory sites exist, but are not uniformly implemented. Our aim was to identify facilitators and barriers to the use of IPC practices to prevent pertussis transmission in ambulatory pediatric settings.HCWs at 18 of 25 (72%) clinics in a pediatric ambulatory network completed a theory-based questionnaire about pertussis and personal protective equipment (PPE). The questionnaire contained randomly distributed versions of two vignettes to create an experimental design assessing barriers to PPE use.Three hundred forty-three of 467 (73%) HCWs completed the survey: 234 (68%) clinical and 109 (32%) nonclinical. Seventy-one percent of clinical HCWs reported wearing PPE when caring for a patient with suspected pertussis; only 27% used PPE for patients with any respiratory symptoms. Among clinical HCWs, reported PPE use when caring for patients with suspected pertussis was independently associated with attitudes toward PPE (odds ratio [OR] 5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 16.6), knowledge and skills (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4, 15.2), and lack of perceived barriers (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 7.9). HCWs who did not perceive PPE use as a norm were less likely to report using PPE (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.6) or distributing masks to patients with cough (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00, 0.2). Reported PPE use was not influenced by perceived infection risk or mask accessibility.Our results identified barriers to PPE use and targets for education to prevent pertussis transmission in ambulatory pediatric settings.


PubMed | Medical University of South Carolina, Internal medicine, Winthrop University, Infection Prevention and Control. and King Saud University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) | Year: 2016

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is diagnosed on the basis of a suggestive history and compatible physical findings and new infiltrates on a chest radiograph. No criteria or combination of criteria based on history and physical examination have been found to be gold standard. With the rise in elderly Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) residents, CAP is likely to present with non-classical manifestations such as somnolence, new anorexia, and confusion and carries a worse outcome than CAP in their younger counterparts. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unresolving CAP in the GCC region. Diagnostic work up depends on severity of CAP, clinical course and underlying risk factors.


PubMed | Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Northwestern University, Infection Prevention and Control., Preventive Medicine Biostatistics. and Ann & Robert H Lurie Childrens Hospital Of Chicago
Type: | Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society | Year: 2016

Although Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, many children diagnosed with CDI lack classic risk factors. Frequent use of highly sensitive tcdB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in low-risk patients leads to CDI misdiagnosis and unnecessary CDI antibiotic use in children with C difficile carriage.For this quasi-experimental study, we developed and implemented an educational intervention (EI) to inform healthcare providers (HCPs) about tcdB PCR test limitations. We provided HCP didactic education and built an electronic notification into the tcdB PCR test order that describes scenarios in which carriage is more likely than CDI. Segmented regression analysis assessed changes in level (ie, overall rates) and trend of C difficile testing rate ([TR] number of tests performed per 1000 patient encounters) and test positivity rate ([PR] number of positive tests per 1000 patient encounters) between the pre- (August 2009-August 2013) and postintervention (February 2014-July 2015) periods.Hospital-wide, absolute TR reduction was 0.71 (P[level] = .0067; P[trend] = .0042) and absolute PR reduction was 0.14 (P[level] = .22; P[trend] = .018). In the outpatient setting, absolute TR reduction was 0.30 (P[level] = .0015; P[trend] < .001) and absolute PR reduction was 0.09 (P[level] = .0069; P[trend] = .046). The incidence density of healthcare facility-associated CDI did not significantly change after the EI. The EI was associated with avoidance of 574 tests and 113 positive tests (and subsequent antibiotic courses) during the postintervention period, which saved approximately $250 000 in patient charges related to CDI testing and treatment.Healthcare provider education can cost-effectively reduce the frequency of C difficile testing and CDI misdiagnosis by improving test utilization among low-risk children.


Al-Thaqafy M.S.,Infection Prevention and Control | Balkhy H.H.,Infection Prevention and Control | Memish Z.,Deputy Minister of Health for Public Health | Makhdom Y.M.,Ministry of Health | And 3 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: Although the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was reported to be higher in military personnel than the general population in Saudi Arabia (SA), there is lack of studies assessing HBV awareness among them. The objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of HBV infection among military personnel. Methods. An intervention design with pre- and post-education KAP questionnaire was completed among National Guard soldiers working in Jeddah during January 2009. Educational intervention was provided through educational leaflets, group and individual discussions, visual show, and a lecture. A score was created from the correct answers to 58 questions. Results: A total of 400 male soldiers with mean age 30.7 ± 6.1 years completed both questionnaires. The majority had school education (96.8%) and in the lower military ranks (66.0%). Only 19.5% of soldiers reported HBV vaccine intake. The low median and inter-quartile range of the pre-intervention score (16, 6-26) markedly increased after education (to 53, 50-55, p<0.001). The overall improvement of mean KAP score (204%) was also observed in all its component scores; disease nature (272%), methods of transmission (206%), prevention and control (109%), attitude (155%), and practice (192%). The improvement was evident irrespective of socio-demographic characteristics and history of HBV vaccine. KAP scores were significantly associated with higher educational levels, higher monthly income, administrative jobs, and higher job ranks. Conclusion: We are reporting a low level of HBV awareness among Saudi military population. The study confirms the need and effectiveness of focused multifaceted educational campaigns among the military population. © 2012 Al-Thaqafy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Al-Thaqafy M.S.,Infection Prevention and Control | Balkhy H.H.,Infection Prevention and Control | Memish Z.,Deputy Minister of Health for Preventive Medicine | Makhdom Y.M.,Ministry of Health | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Data on HBV prevalence among active military personnel in Saudi Arabia (SA) are lacking. In addition, the work-related risk of exposure is unclear. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and the risk of HBV exposure among SA National Guard (SANG) soldiers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed and included 400 male SANG soldiers working in Jeddah during January 2009. All soldiers completed a questionnaire to assess their risk of exposure and gave a blood sample to test for hepatitis serology markers. Results: A total of 16 (4.0%) soldiers were positive for HbsAg, 53 (13.2%) were positive for anti-HBc, and 230 (57.5%) were positive for anti-HBs. None of the soldiers had acute HBV infection, but 15 (3.8%) were chronic HBV carriers. A total of 152 (38.0%) soldiers were susceptible to HBV infection, and 230 (57.5%) were immune to HBV infection, primarily (84.3%) due to HBV vaccination. Compared with those who were negative for anti-HBc (never exposed), soldiers who were positive for anti-HBc were more likely to be older, have a lower education level, have a higher income, have a longer service duration, have a household member with HBV disease, have undergone surgery, or have undergone endoscopy. In the multivariate logistic regression model, older age, presence of a household member with HBV disease and previous endoscopy were independent predictors of HBV exposure. Conclusion: We report a 4% prevalence of HBsAg in the Saudi military population. This HBV prevalence was higher than those in the general Saudi population and military populations from Western countries. Both work-related and community-related risk factors for exposure are suggested. © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.


Jeanes A.,Infection Prevention and Control | Bitmead J.,University College London
British Journal of Nursing | Year: 2015

The use of vascular access devices (VAD) is common in healthcare provision but there is a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with the highest risk of intravenous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). 3M Tegaderm CHG IV dressing is a semi-permeable transparent adhesive dressing with an integrated gel pad containing chlorhexidine gluconate 2%. This product was reviewed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2015, recommending that Tegaderm CHG could be used for CVC and arterial line dressings in high-dependency and intensive-care settings. This article discusses issues around CRBSI, interventions to reduce the risk of CRBSI, and the use of Tegaderm CHG dressing.


Taylor G.,University of Alberta | Bush K.,Infection Prevention and Control | Leal J.,Infection Prevention and Control | Henderson E.,Infection Prevention and Control | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2015

Most studies of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) reflect a convenience sample from a single hospital or a small group of hospitals. From April 2011 to March 2013, cases of MRSA BSI diagnosed in all hospitals in Alberta, Canada were captured prospectively. Isolates were spa typed. In total, there were 299 cases of MRSA BSI, equating to 3.95 cases per 100,000 population. Community-acquired BSI accounted for 66.9% of cases, and 33.1% of cases were hospital acquired. Cases were predominantly seen in tertiary care (36.4%) and large urban hospitals (34.3%), but were also common in regional and rural hospitals. Paediatric hospitals had very few cases (3.0%). Two clones, CMRSA 10 (USA 300; 40.2%) and CMRSA 2 (USA 100/800; 38.0%), predominated. © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society.


Although the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was reported to be higher in military personnel than the general population in Saudi Arabia (SA), there is lack of studies assessing HBV awareness among them. The objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of HBV infection among military personnel.An intervention design with pre- and post-education KAP questionnaire was completed among National Guard soldiers working in Jeddah during January 2009. Educational intervention was provided through educational leaflets, group and individual discussions, visual show, and a lecture. A score was created from the correct answers to 58 questions.A total of 400 male soldiers with mean age 30.7 6.1 years completed both questionnaires. The majority had school education (96.8%) and in the lower military ranks (66.0%). Only 19.5% of soldiers reported HBV vaccine intake. The low median and inter-quartile range of the pre-intervention score (16, 6-26) markedly increased after education (to 53, 50-55, p<0.001). The overall improvement of mean KAP score (204%) was also observed in all its component scores; disease nature (272%), methods of transmission (206%), prevention and control (109%), attitude (155%), and practice (192%). The improvement was evident irrespective of socio-demographic characteristics and history of HBV vaccine. KAP scores were significantly associated with higher educational levels, higher monthly income, administrative jobs, and higher job ranks.We are reporting a low level of HBV awareness among Saudi military population. The study confirms the need and effectiveness of focused multifaceted educational campaigns among the military population.


PubMed | University of Calgary and Infection Prevention and Control
Type: | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2015

During treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), patterns of pathogen reduction in relationship to changes in components of the normal microbiota are hypothesized to be predictive of response to treatment and subsequent sustained cure.At a single center, subjects enrolled into phase 2 and 3 C. difficile treatment clinical trials (2003-2008) provided fecal samples to assess killing of C. difficile and changes to components of the microbiome. Quantitative bacterial cultures, measurement of C. difficile toxin titers, quantitative polymerase chain reaction of fecal samples for Bacteroidetes, Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV, and C. difficile were performed.Quantitative bacterial cultures showed a mean log10 C. difficile count (colony-forming units [CFU]) of 6.7 2.0 at study entry; vancomycin treatment consistently reduced C. difficile counts to the limit of detection (2.0 log10 CFU/g), whereas metronidazole was associated with mean C. difficile counts 1.5-2 log10 higher at 10 days of treatment. In patients receiving tolevamer, C. difficile persisted in high counts during treatment; response to treatment was correlated with neutralization of toxin along with persistence of normal microbiota components. However, this was achieved in approximately half of subjects. Both vancomycin and metronidazole further suppressed microbiome components during treatment of CDI. Lactobacilli were observed to be a microbiome component that persisted during treatment of CDI.Differences of pathogen clearance and microbiome perturbation during treatment of CDI appear to explain treatment outcomes. The hypothesis that probiotic microbes could help prevent onset of CDI is supported by the observation of persistence of lactobacilli during and after treatment of CDI.


PubMed | World Health Organization, King Abdulaziz Hospital, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal Hospital and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of infection control | Year: 2016

Data estimating the rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critical patients in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are very limited. The aim of this study was to estimate VAP rates in GCC hospitals and to compare rates with published reports of the U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).VAP rates and ventilator utilization between 2008 and 2013 were calculated from aggregate VAP surveillance data using NHSN methodology pooled from 6 hospitals in 3 GCC countries: Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Bahrain. The standardized infection ratios of VAP in GCC hospitals were compared with published reports of the NHSN and INICC.A total of 368 VAP events were diagnosed during a 6-year period covering 76,749 ventilator days and 134,994 patient days. The overall VAP rate was 4.8 per 1,000 ventilator days (95% confidence interval, 4.3-5.3), with an overall ventilator utilization of 0.57. The VAP rates showed a wide variability between different types of intensive care units (ICUs) and were decreasing over time. After adjusting for the differences in ICU type, the risk of VAP in GCC hospitals was 217% higher than NHSN hospitals and 69% lower than INICC hospitals.The risk of VAP in ICU patients in GCC countries is higher than pooled U.S. VAP rates but lower than pooled rates from developing countries participating in the INICC.

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