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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Ayouni S.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Ayouni S.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Estienney M.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Noroviruses (NoVs) constitute a major cause of gastroenteritis in Tunisia. One hundred and fourteen matched saliva and stool samples were collected from children (. n=114) suffering from acute gastroenteritis at the hospital of Monastir during the winter season 2011-2012. For 98 of 114 children, blood samples were collected for secretor genotyping. NoVs were associated with 36.8% (. n=42/114) of the gastroenteritis cases. The GII.3 genotype was the most common (69% of all NoVs). For patients who were phenotyped (. n=114) for human blood group antigens (HBGAs), the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes represented 79% and 21%, respectively. Of the NoV infections, 83% were detected in all ABO groups. Five GII.3 isolates, one GII.1 isolate and one GII.7 isolate were detected in Lewis-positive non-secretors, confirmed by genotyping of the FUT2 gene. Even though our data showed that GII.3 NoVs could infect non-secretors, no binding was observed with saliva and GII.3 baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles from the same symptomatic non-secretor individual. This suggests that other factors might also participate in NoV attachment in children and newborns. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Kamel A.H.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Kamel A.H.,National Research Center of Egypt | Ali M.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | El-Nady H.G.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To characterize major enteric viruses (enterovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus) in the sewage of Greater Cairo and to compare the results with clinical data collected during the same period. Methods and Results: Seventy-two sewage samples from two waste water treatment plants were collected from April 2006 through February 2007. Enteroviruses, noroviruses (NoVs) and rotaviruses (RVs) were detected by RT-PCR in 22%, 18% and 8·3% of the samples, respectively. No adenovirus and astrovirus was detected. G2P[8], G9P[8], G1P[8], G2P[4] and rare G12 RV isolates were detected in the environment as well as a bovine RV. The environmental NoV strains mostly belonged to genogroup I (84%). Rotaviruses and some of the NoVs were similar to those found in the clinical samples at the same time. Conclusions: The comparison of environmental and clinical data suggests that similar RV and NoV isolates were circulating in the environment and in the population during the same period. Significance and Impact of the Study: Few studies have investigated the prevalence and the epidemiology of RVs and NoVs in Cairo. This work is the first to establish a correlation between viral gastroenteritis and the concomitant presence of enteric viruses in the environment for Greater Cairo where combined environmental and clinical surveys should help to prevent infections caused by these major pathogens. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source

Kamel A.H.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Kamel A.H.,Infectious Diseases and Immunology Group | Ali M.A.,Infectious Diseases and Immunology Group | El-Nady H.G.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

In Egypt, the disease burden of viral hepatitis is one of the heaviest worldwide. We conducted a survey of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in patients and sewage in Cairo. Our data showed that HAV (genotype IB) was predominant over HEV (genotype 3) and was circulating in the population and the environment. © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Colas de la Noue A.,CNRS Food Processing and Microbiology Laboratory | Estienney M.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Aho S.,Epidemiology and Infection Control Unit | Perrier-Cornet J.-M.,CNRS Food Processing and Microbiology Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Makaya J.M.,University of Ouagadougou | Kaplon J.,Center Hospitalier University Of Dijon Chu Dijon | Fremy C.,Center Hospitalier University Of Dijon Chu Dijon | Barro N.,University of Ouagadougou | And 4 more authors.
Food and Environmental Virology | Year: 2014

Urine from urine-diversion toilets (UDTs) is routinely used as fertilizer for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Because urine from UDTs can be accidentally spoiled by feces, we determined whether virulent enteric viruses could persist in urine that is used for agricultural purposes and pose a threat to human health. Urine samples (N = 60) were first collected from 42 UDTs during the months of January and February 2012 in Ouagadougou and screened negative for the presence of norovirus (NoV) and group A rotavirus (RV). Composite urine from five collection sites was used to determine whether spiked murine norovirus (MNV) and group A bovine rotavirus (boRVA) could remain infectious at 15, 25, and 42 °C over an incubation period of 42 days in phosphate buffered saline (control) and urine. For both viruses, infectivity was determined by plaque assay and the presence of viral genome was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. A decrease in the infectious titer was observed in composite urines that were experimentally seeded with MNV and boRVA. The decrease in the infectious titer was greater for MNV than for boRVA. Given that MNV was more labile to urine than boRVA was, MNV and boRVA genomes were still detectable after the 42 and 49 days incubation period for MNV and boRVA, respectively. Our data using substitutes of human NoV and RV suggested that there is a virucidal activity of urine against RVs and NoVs, given that the effect was lesser for RV. In spite of disappointing results for boRVA, the use of urine as fertilizer is still promising provided that future safety studies are extended to other enteric viruses. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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