Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit

Clayton, Australia

Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit

Clayton, Australia
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Javanbakht M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Anderson L.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Malek M.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Smith L.V.,University of California at Los Angeles | Smith L.V.,Office of Health Assessment and Epidemiology
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives. We describe and report findings from a screening program to identify sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among female inmates in Los Angeles County Jail. Methods. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening was offered to entering female inmates. Women were eligible if they were (1) aged 30 years or younger, or (2) pregnant or possibly pregnant, or (3) booked on prostitution or sex-related charges. Voluntary syphilis and HIV testing was offered to all women between 2006 and 2009. This analysis reports on data collected from 2002 through 2012. Results. A total of 76 207 women participated in the program. Chlamydia prevalence was 11.4% and gonorrhea was 3.1%. Early syphilis was identified in 1.4% (141 of 9733) and the overall prevalence of HIV was 1.1% (83 of 7448). Treatment levels for early syphilis and HIV were high (99% and 100%, respectively), but only 56% of chlamydia and 58% of gonorrhea cases were treated. Conclusions. Screening incarcerated women in Los Angeles County revealed a high prevalence of STIs and HIV. These inmates represent a unique opportunity for the identification of STIs and HIV, although strategies to improve chlamydia and gonorrhea treatment rates are needed. © 2014, American Public Health Association Inc. All rights reserved.


Gillespie E.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Williams N.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Sloane T.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Wright L.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2015

The use of microfiber and steam technology may be seen as a novel cleaning method that can improve the outcome of cleaning. We describe its use in an intensive care setting, its impact on vancomycin-resistant enterococci acquisition, and the importance of ensuring adequate education of cleaning staff. Such new methods can have a significant impact on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms, provided systems are in place to ensure that the methodology is adhered to and that cleaning hours are adequate. © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.


PubMed | Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit and Monash Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of infection control | Year: 2016

Microfiber and steam technology is a novel cleaning method that has advantages for clinical applications. We describe its use in the operating room. The benefits include improved cleaning for every patient regardless of known or perceived risk, occupational health and safety advantages, and reduced cost of cleaning, allowing for expansion of cleaning activity without the need for additional human resources. Continuous surgical site infection surveillance demonstrated that infections remained at previously low levels.


Gillespie E.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Rodrigues A.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Wright L.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Williams N.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Stuart R.L.,Monash University
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial stewardship programs are important preventative strategies to reduce hospital-acquired infection, typically involving medical and pharmacy staff. Because nurses are pivotal in administering medication prescribed by medical staff and filled by pharmacy staff, we assessed nursing attitudes and antimicrobial stewardship knowledge before and after an education intervention that focused on nursing involvement in antimicrobial management. This study supports involving nurses as a means of improving antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit and Monash University
Type: | Journal: American journal of infection control | Year: 2016

We report an outbreak of parainfluenza 3, which had an attack rate of 30%, in a residential care facility in Melbourne, Australia. One-fifth of affected residents required hospitalization, but there were no deaths. The outbreak demonstrated the value of active surveillance and early microbiologic testing and the urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship programs in the aged care setting.


Girerd-Genessay I.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Baratin D.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Ferry T.,Hospices Civils de Lyon | Chidiac C.,Hospices Civils de Lyon | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006-2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. © 2016 Girerd-Genessay et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Kotsanas D.,Monash Medical Center | Lovegrove A.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Sloane T.L.,Dandenong Hospital | Gillespie E.E.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit
Healthcare Infection | Year: 2012

Background Potentially harmful bacteria have been shown to contaminate traditional cloth cubical curtains. Health care-associated bacteria may, therefore, have the potential to be transmitted from curtains to patients via the hands of health care workers, especially if hand hygiene is not adequate. Over the past few years disposable biocidal curtains have become available which can offer antimicrobial capabilities, less frequent changes, as well as cost savings on laundering. Methods Microbial testing was undertaken on two types of disposable polypropylene curtains: one coated with the biostatic agent didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and the other coated with polysiloxane. Samples were inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), as well as a toxin-producing Clostridium difficile (containing spores). Finger imprints and curtain impressions were made on agar after 1 day, 10 days, 1 month and 2 months. Results Both types of curtains showed similar results. Gram-negative bacteria did not grow after 1 day but S. aureus and E. faecalis could be detected at 10 days with no growth thereafter. However, C. difficile persisted up to 2 months post sample contamination, most likely due to the persistence of spores. Conclusions This study demonstrated that biocide-treated disposable curtains eliminated or reduced the number of hand-transferred bacteria tested; however, spore-forming C. difficile persisted for long periods of time in the environment. Therefore, newer biocide-treated disposable curtains need to contain sporicidal formulations in order to control contamination by this nosocomial pathogen. © Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control 2012.


Gillespie E.E.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Scott C.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Wilson J.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Stuart R.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

Environmental surfaces are likely to contribute to the transmission of health care-associated pathogens. The present study aimed to determine the most effective regimen or product for removing bioburden. An adenosine triphosphate assessment technique was used to compare cleaning methods and products for removing bioburden from soiled surfaces. Of the regimens or products tested, 2-step cleaning most thoroughly removed bioburden. The 2-in-1 products were no more effective in removing bioburden than a 1-step clean using a neutral detergent. Copyright © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gillespie E.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Wilson J.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Lovegrove A.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | Scott C.,Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2013

Effective cleaning of elements in the health care environment has a crucial role in reducing the risk of health care-acquired infection. We assessed ultramicrofiber cloth and steam technology in 2 clinical settings. This new technology performed extremely well. Our pilot study supports using ultramicrofiber cloth and steam technology as an alternative to cleaning with chemicals. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Infection Control and Epidemiology Unit and Hospices Civils de Lyon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial.Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models.Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006-2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01).Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years.

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