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Hily-Blant P.,Joseph Fourier University | Maret S.,Joseph Fourier University | Bacmann A.,Joseph Fourier University | Bacmann A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 63 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Nitrogen is the fifth most abundant element in the Universe, yet the gas-phase chemistry of N-bearing species remains poorly understood. Nitrogen hydrides are key molecules of nitrogen chemistry. Their abundance ratios place strong constraints on the production pathways and reaction rates of nitrogen-bearing molecules. We observed the class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422 with the heterodyne instrument HIFI, covering most of the frequency range from 0.48 to 1.78 THz at high spectral resolution. The hyperfine structure of the amidogen radical o-NH2 is resolved and seen in absorption against the continuum of the protostar. Several transitions of ammonia from 1.2 to 1.8 THz are also seen in absorption. These lines trace the low-density envelope of the protostar. Column densities and abundances are estimated for each hydride. We find that NH:NH2:NH3 ≈ 5:1:300. Dark clouds chemical models predict steady-state abundances of NH2 and NH3 in reasonable agreement with the present observations, whilst that of NH is underpredicted by more than one order of magnitude, even using updated kinetic rates. Additional modelling of the nitrogen gas-phase chemistry in dark-cloud conditions is necessary before having recourse to heterogen processes. © 2010 ESO.


Emprechtinger M.,California Institute of Technology | Emprechtinger M.,University of Cologne | Lis D.C.,California Institute of Technology | Bell T.,California Institute of Technology | And 70 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Aims. We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of H 216O, H218O, and H2 17O toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze these observations to obtain insights into physical processes in this region. Methods. We identify three main gas components (hot core, cold foreground, and outflow) in NGC 6334 I and derive the physical conditions in these components. Results. The hot core, identified by the emission in highly excited lines, shows a high excitation temperature of ∼200 K, whereas water in the foreground component is predominantly in the ortho-and para-ground states. The abundance of water varies between 4 × 10-5 (outflow) and 10-8 (cold foreground gas). This variation is most likely due to the freeze-out of water molecules onto dust grains. The H218O/H2 17O abundance ratio is 3.2, which is consistent with the 18O/17O ratio determined from CO isotopologues. The ortho/para ratio in water appears to be relatively low (1.6±1) in the cold, quiescent gas, but close to the equilibrium value of three in the warmer outflow material (2.5±0.8). © 2010 ESO.


Vastel C.,University Paul Sabatier | Vastel C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ceccarelli C.,Joseph Fourier University | Ceccarelli C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 88 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims. The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of the interstellar medium. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the Herschel/HIFI instrument provide a unique opportunity to observe the fundamental 11,1-$0 0,0 transition of the ortho-D2O molecule, which is inaccessible from the ground, and determine the ortho-to-para D2O ratio. Methods. We detected the fundamental transition of the ortho-D 2O molecule at 607.35 GHz towards IRAS 16293-2422. The line is seen in absorption with a line opacity of 0.62 ± 0.11 (1σ). From the previous ground-based observations of the fundamental 11,0-1 0,1 transition of para-D2O seen in absorption at 316.80 GHz, we estimate a line opacity of 0.26 ± 0.05 (1σ). Results. We show that the observed absorption is caused by the cold gas in the envelope of the protostar. Using these new observations, we estimate for the first time the ortho-to-para D2O ratio to be lower than 2.6 at a 3σ level of uncertainty, which should be compared with the thermal equilibrium value of 2:1. © 2010 ESO.


Ceccarelli C.,Joseph Fourier University | Ceccarelli C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Ceccarelli C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bacmann A.,Joseph Fourier University | And 85 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project "Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions", CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 × 105 L⊙: L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence/absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status. © 2010 ESO.


Van Der Wiel M.H.D.,University of Groningen | Van Der Wiel M.H.D.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Van Der Tak F.F.S.,University of Groningen | Van Der Tak F.F.S.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | And 86 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. In contrast to the more extensively studied dense star-forming cores, little is known about diffuse gas surrounding star-forming regions. Aims. We study the molecular gas in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I, which contains diffuse, quiescent components that are inconspicuous in widely used molecular tracers such as CO. Methods. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of methylidyne (CH) toward NGC 6334I observed as part of the "Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions" (CHESS) key program. HIFI resolves each of the six hyperfine components of the lowest rotational transition (J = $\frac{3}{2}$-$\frac{1}{2} $) of CH, observed in both emission and absorption. Results. The CH emission features appear close to the systemic velocity of NGC 6334I, while its measured FWHM linewidth of 3 km s-1 is smaller than previously observed in dense gas tracers such as NH3 and SiO. The CH abundance in the hot core is ∼7 × 10-11, two to three orders of magnitude lower than in diffuse clouds. While other studies find distinct outflows in, e.g., CO and H2O toward NGC 6334I, we do not detect any outflow signatures in CH. At least two redshifted components of cold absorbing material must be present at-3.0 and +6.5 km s-1 to explain the absorption signatures. We derive a CH column density (NCH) of 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 cm-2 for these two absorbing clouds. We find evidence of two additional absorbing clouds at +8.0 and 0.0 km s-1, both with NCH ≈ 2 × 10 13 cm-2. Turbulent linewidths for the four absorption components vary between 1.5 and 5.0 km s-1 in FWHM. We constrain the physical properties and locations of the clouds by matching our CH absorbers with the absorption signatures seen in other molecular tracers. Conclusions. In the hot core, molecules such as H2O and CO trace gas that is heated and dynamically influenced by outflow activity, whereas the CH molecule traces more quiescent material. The four CH absorbing clouds have column densities and turbulent properties that are consistent with those of diffuse clouds: two are located in the direct surroundings of NGC 6334, and two are unrelated foreground clouds. Local density and dynamical effects influence the chemical composition of the physical components of NGC 6334, which causes some components to be seen in CH but not in other tracers, and vice versa. © 2010 ESO.


Kama M.,University of Amsterdam | Dominik C.,University of Amsterdam | Dominik C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Maret S.,Joseph Fourier University | And 81 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

In contrast with numerous studies on the physical and chemical structure of low-and high-mass protostars, much less is known about their intermediate-mass counterparts, a class of objects that could help to elucidate the mechanisms of star formation on both ends of the mass range. We present the first results from a rich HIFI spectral dataset on an intermediate-mass protostar, OMC2-FIR4, obtained in the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions) key programme. The more than 100 methanol lines detected between 554 and 961 GHz cover a range in upper level energy of 40 to 540 K. Our physical interpretation focusses on the hot core, but likely the cold envelope and shocked regions also play a role in reality, because an analysis of the line profiles suggests the presence of multiple emission components. An upper limit of 10-6 is placed on the methanol abundance in the hot core, using a population diagram, large-scale source model and other considerations. This value is consistent with abundances previously seen in low-mass hot cores. Furthermore, the highest energy lines at the highest frequencies display asymmetric profiles, which may arise from infall around the hot core. © 2010 ESO.


Codella C.,National institute for astrophysics | Lefloch B.,Joseph Fourier University | Ceccarelli C.,Joseph Fourier University | Cernicharo J.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 72 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

We present the first results of the unbiased survey of the L1157-B1 bow shock, obtained with HIFI in the framework of the key program Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions (CHESS). The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright blue-shifted bow shock B1 is the ideal laboratory for studying the link between the hot (∼1000-2000 K) component traced by H2 IR-emission and the cold (∼10-20 K) swept-up material. The main aim is to trace the warm gas chemically enriched by the passage of a shock and to infer the excitation conditions in L1157-B1. A total of 27 lines are identified in the 555-636 GHz region, down to an average 3σ level of 30 mK. The emission is dominated by CO(5-4) and H 2O(110-101) transitions, as discussed by Lefloch et al. in this volume. Here we report on the identification of lines from NH3, H2CO, CH3OH, CS, HCN, and HCO+. The comparison between the profiles produced by molecules released from dust mantles (NH3, H2CO, CH3OH) and that of H2O is consistent with a scenario in which water is also formed in the gas-phase in high-temperature regions where sputtering or grain-grain collisions are not efficient. The high excitation range of the observed tracers allows us to infer, for the first time for these species, the existence of a warm (≥200 K) gas component coexisting in the B1 bow structure with the cold and hot gas detected from ground. © 2010 ESO.

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