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Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Pinel-Galzi A.,Montpellier University | Traore O.,Inera | Sere Y.,University of Dar es Salaam | Hebrard E.,Montpellier University | Fargette D.,Montpellier University
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015

Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) exemplifies the key role in plant virus emergence of the early steps of crop extension and intensification in traditional agriculture. In East Africa, RYMV emerged in the 19th century after rice intensification along the Indian Ocean coast, and later spread inland concomitantly with rice introduction. In West Africa, the contrasted history of rice cultivation among regions differently shaped RYMV populations. A biogeographical approach - which jointly considers the spatial distribution of the virus and its hosts over time - was applied to reach these conclusions. We linked the evolution of RYMV over the past two centuries to a geographical map of the history of rice cultivation in Africa. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Brun-Barale A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Hema O.,Inera | Martin T.,UR 103 HORTSYS CIRAD | Suraporn S.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 3 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin has been a growing problem in the management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) pest populations in West Africa. Detoxification by P450 enzymes appears to be a major mechanism of resistance, but the genes responsible for resistance are unknown. RESULTS: First, it was shown that deltamethrin resistance in strains from Burkina Faso (Kaya) and from Spain (Seville) were suppressible by piperonyl butoxide and by trichlorophenyl propynyl ether, thus indicating a major role of P450 enzyme(s) in resistance. The larval expression of 21 CYP genes encoding P450 enzymes from six CYP families were then compared by quantitative RT-PCR. Five genes, CYP4L5, CYP4L11, CYP6AE11, CYP332A1 and CYP9A14, were significantly overexpressed in the Kaya and Seville strains when compared with Heliar, a susceptible strain. Significant overexpression of multiple CYP genes (CYP4M6, CYP4M7, CYP6AE11, CYP9A12, CYP332A1 and CYP337B1) was also found in six field strains with different levels of resistance from Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali. CONCLUSION: Although functional or genetic evidence for the role of these P450s in resistance remains to be formally established, results suggest that multiple P450 enzymes contribute to deltamethrin resistance. This study is a first step towards the development of molecular tools for the detection of P450-based resistance in H. armigera. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Barbier B.,CIRAD | Barbier B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Ouedraogo H.,Arid s c 2iE | Dembele Y.,Inera | And 3 more authors.
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2011

Irrigation in SahelianWest African countries covers a wide variety of systems and practices. In this paper, we discuss various technical and managerial options including free or controlled submersion, improved inland valleys, flood recession cropping, and full control in small and large irrigation schemes through a classification developed by national experts in five Sahelian countries. Governments are currently promoting two strategies. One is based on large schemes, with foreign or national private investment. The other is based on small private irrigation approches.Water constraints are not very strongly taken into account, as the priority is to develop new schemes in order to reach food security for fast growing cities. Source

Alvarez I.,SERIDA Deva | Capote J.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Traore A.,Inera | Fonseca N.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias Jorge Dimitrov | And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to assess: (a) the genetic relationships between the Cuban Pelibuey and both the Hair-Mexican and Hair-Canarian sheep populations; and (b) the influence of African hair sheep in the formation of the Cuban Pelibuey breed. A total of 146 individuals of Cuban Pelibuey hair sheep breed were sampled and genotyped for 26 microsatellites together with 26 Hair-Mexican and 24 Hair-Canarian individuals. Additionally, the same microsatellites set was typed on 110 West African hair sheep and on 41 individuals belonging to the Wooled-Canarian (23) and the Wooled-Palmera (18) sheep breeds to be used as outgroup. Genetic distance, correspondence and STRUCTURE analyses pointed out that the Cuban Pelibuey has a particular genetic background. This population has relatively high levels of gene diversity (0.685. ±. 0.006) and rarefacted allelic richness (5.9). No signals of genetic bottleneck in the Cuban Pelibuey sheep were detected. The Hair-Canarian and the Hair-Mexican populations are closely related. This is likely to be due to a major role of the Cuban Pelibuey sheep in their formation. The influence of African hair sheep into the Cuban Pelibuey could be limited and recent in historical terms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Perez-Pardal L.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Royo L.J.,Area de Genetica y Reproduccion Animal | Curik I.,University of Zagreb | Traore A.,Inera | And 7 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2010

Five cattle Y-specific microsatellites, totalling six loci, were selected from a set of 44 markers and genotyped on 608 Bos taurus males belonging to 45 cattle populations from Europe and Africa. A total of 38 haplotypes were identified. Haplogroups (Y1 and Y2) previously defined using single nucleotide polymorphisms did not share haplotypes. Nine of the 27 Y2-haplotypes were only present in African cattle. Network and correspondence analyses showed that this African-specific subfamily clustered separately from the main Y2-subfamily and the Y1 haplotypes. Within-breed genetic variability was generally low, with most breeds (78%) showing haplotypes belonging to a single haplogroup. amova analysis showed that partitioning of genetic variation among breeds can be mainly explained by their geographical and haplogroup assignment. Between-breed genetic variability summarized via Principal Component Analysis allowed the identification of three principal components explaining 94.2% of the available information. Projection of principal components on geographical maps illustrated that cattle populations located in mainland Europe, the three European Peninsulas and Mediterranean Africa presented similar genetic variation, whereas those breeds from Atlantic Europe and British Islands (mainly carrying Y1 haplotypes) and those from Sub-Saharan Africa (belonging to Y2-haplogroup) showed genetic variation of a different origin. Our study confirmed the existence of two large Y-chromosome lineages (Y1 and Y2) in taurine cattle. However, Y-specific microsatellites increased analytical resolution and allowed at least two different Y2-haplotypic subfamilies to be distinguished, one of them restricted to the African continent. © 2009 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source

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