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Zokaie M.,University of Oslo | Wragg D.S.,University of Oslo | Gronvold A.,INEOS ChlorVinyls | Fuglerud T.,INEOS ChlorVinyls | And 4 more authors.
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2013

We have investigated the mechanism of anisotropic changes in the unit cell dimensions of SAPO-34 during the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process. Retained hydrocarbon analysis was employed to quantify the amount of coke in the cages of thermally quenched SAPO-34 samples which had been used as the catalyst in the MTO reaction. Molecular mechanics structural optimizations were carried out on structural models with different coke molecules in the pores, and the results were compared to experimentally determined cell dimension changes and coke composition. Our results indicate no correlation between small hydrocarbon intermediates and cell expansion, with all changes in the unit cell parameters being due to bulky coke molecules like phenanthrene and pyrene. Further, only a small fraction of the cavities in the material need to be filled with such large molecules in order to bring about changes of the magnitude observed experimentally. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Azapagic A.,University of Manchester | Burkinshaw R.,Kellogg Brown and Root | Chahal S.,United Technologies | Leadbitter J.,Ineos ChlorVinyls | Pitts M.,Chemistry Innovation
Chemical Engineer | Year: 2011

A research team at the University of Manchester, led by Adisa Azapagic, has developed a carbon footprinting tool Carbon Calculations over the Life Cycle of Industrial Activities (CCaLC). The tool is aimed at assisting businesses and professionals to estimate and manage the climate change impact of their activities along the supply chains. Suitable for both large companies and SMEs, CCaLC can be used for quick, broad-brush analyses or detailed estimations of carbon footprints, depending on the aims of the study. CCaLC contains carbon footprint data for over 5000 different materials, energy, transport, packaging, and waste management options. Two further tools within the CCaLC tools family include the PVC sustainability tool, developed specifically for the PVC industry and the CCaLC optimization tool. It is also possible to estimate economic costs and value added within CCaLC, while the latter provides a powerful tool for managing carbon emissions at minimum economic costs.

Agaciak P.,ESPCI ParisTech | Yahiaoui S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Djabourov M.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lasuye T.,INEOS ChlorVinyls
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2015

Concentration of aqueous suspensions of solid particles (called slurries in industrial processes) is achieved by centrifugation at high accelerations and it is an important step in dry powder productions; dehydration precedes drying. In aqueous suspensions of porous particles, water is both the interstitial fluid, which disperses the particles and the imbibition fluid, which fills the pores inside particles. This is the case in the pastes of poly(vinyl)chloride (PVC) polymerized in suspensions after centrifugation. PVC grains are non-colloidal particles with diameters close to 150. μm and variable inner porosity, which are synthetized in aqueous solutions using dispersants such as various poly(vinyl)alcohols (PVA). In this paper we determine the dehydration by centrifugation of different grades PVC suspensions with laboratory scale experiments. It is shown that the humid pastes reach a pendular state at high accelerations and that the compaction of the grains and their surface properties determine the final retention of the water by capillary forces. In such conditions, internal water, inside the pores of the grains can be eliminated only by evaporation. Drying was investigated in controlled relative humidity atmospheres (. RH) in desiccators by measuring the equilibrium moisture content of the grains and the evaporation rates. The evaporation rate of the superficial water is similar to pure water and can be interpreted using Stefan's equation, whereas substantial differences exist between the total drying times of grades. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dorobantu Bodoc M.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Prat L.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Xuereb C.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Gourdon C.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Lasuye T.,Ineos ChlorVinyls
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2012

A novel capillary-based microfluidic device has been designed to follow the vinyl chloride polymerization reaction. Monodisperse droplets of 200μm diameter could be obtained by means of a co-flow generation system, each one being considered as a polymerization reactor. Monomer droplets were visualized in a microchannel with a high-speed camera. At the end of the reaction, PVC grains were observed with a scanning electron microscopy technique. Real-time non-invasive Raman measurement was performed on stationary vinyl chloride monomer droplets and provided values of effective reaction orders and rate constants. This microdevice allowed reaction investigation under difficult conditions of pressure and temperature with a minimal amount of reagents. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Patrick S.,Ineos ChlorVinyls | Patrick S.,Institute of Materials
Society of Plastics Engineers - EUROTEC 2011 Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The papers from the most recent IOM3 conference, PVC 2011, are used as the basis for this paper. The PVC market is reviewed on the basis of Europe's environmental challenges with management options being reshaped by global megatrends. The cost competitiveness of PVC products, energy saving from using PVC products and increasing recognition of our sustainable development progress can only serve our industry well into the future. The Voluntary Commitments of the past ten years (Vinyl 2010) and the next ten years (VinylPlus) are reviewed. Examples of educational initiatives in the UK to improve perceptions are also highlighted.

Rabia A.,ESPCI ParisTech | Yahiaoui S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Djabourov M.,ESPCI ParisTech | Feuillebois F.,CNRS Computer Science Laboratory for Mechanics and Engineering Sciences | Lasuye T.,INEOS ChlorVinyls
Rheologica Acta | Year: 2014

The use of nonstandard geometries like the vane is essential to measure the rheological characteristics of complex fluids such as non-Newtonian fluids or particle dispersions. For this geometry which is of Couette type, there is no analytical simple model defining the relation between the shear stress and the torque or relating the angular velocity to the shear rate. This study consists on calibrating a nonstandard vane geometry using a finite volume method with the Ansys Fluent software. The influence of geometrical parameters and rheological characteristics of the complex fluids are considered. First, the Newtonian fluid flow in a rotative vane geometry was simulated and a parametric model is derived therefrom. The results show an excellent agreement between the calculated torque and the measured one. They provide the possibility to define equivalent dimensions by reference to a standard geometry with concentric cylinders where the relationships between shear stress (resp. shear rate) and the torque (resp. the angular rotation) are classical. Non-Newtonian fluid flows obeying a power law rheology with different indices were then simulated. The results of these numerical simulations are in very good agreement with the preceding Newtonian-based model in some ranges of indices. The absolute difference still under 5 % provided the index is below 0.45. Finally, this study provides a calibration protocol in order to use nonstandard vane geometries with various heights, gaps, and distance to the cup bottom for measuring the rheology of complex fluids like shear thinning fluids and concentrated suspensions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Masding P.,INEOS ChlorVinyls | Lennox B.,University of Manchester
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2010

Problems associated with process control equipment, such as valves, can be very subtle and difficult to detect. However, the impact that these problems can have on the performance of a process control system can be significant. This paper explores the use of dynamic, mechanistic modelling as a tool for detecting problems associated with process control equipment and as a technique for validating that corrective action which will solve these problems before such action is applied to the plant. The paper describes a case-study application at an INEOS ChlorVinyls site in Runcorn. In this case study, a dynamic model was able to identify the cause of a serious plant problem and determine the necessary re-configuration of the plant control systems, such that plant operations were improved. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agaciak P.,ESPCI ParisTech | Yahiaoui S.,ESPCI ParisTech | Djabourov M.,ESPCI ParisTech | Lasuye T.,INEOS ChlorVinyls
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes the drying rates of humid porous grains of poly(vinyl)chloride PVC by thermogravimetry. Grains have variable volume fractions of pores, representing between 16 and 33%. g water/g PVC, with pore sizes varying between 0.6 and 1. μm. It is shown that the humid cakes exhibit three different drying rate regimes at constant temperature, characterizing evaporation of free water, of interstitial water and of water inside the pores. The constant rate period (CRP) and the falling rate period (FRP) of drying are clearly identified. The drying rates and drying times are presented in adimensional units by comparison with evaporation of pure water. The thermogravimetric analysis identifies a fraction of water which dries very slowly inside the pores. A method of quantifying the strongly bound water is presented. Numerical simulations of water evaporation were performed on a 2D array of channels and illustrate the contribution of geometrical effects (diameter of channels, tortuosity, etc.) in pore drying. Visual observations of the drying of droplets of solutions containing dispersants used in PVC synthesis show interesting patterns. The phase separated solutions of dispersants are analyzed and their role in drying is highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

The report Global Caustic Soda Market Research Report - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2014 – 2021 by DecisionDatabases.com segments the market by application and geography and provides the complete analysis of the market drivers, restraints, growth and future trends. Caustic soda is an inorganic compound with an alkali salt of sodium available in the form of pellets and granules. It is also termed as sodium hydroxide and Iye. It is used in many industries as a chemical base to manufacture pulp, paper, textiles, cleaning products etc. The demand from these end user industries has led to a steady growth of caustic soda market. In addition the growing economies and increasing chemical usages across the industries is the major growth factor for caustic soda industry. The chemical industry uses caustic soda widely as a basic feedstock. The downstream products that consume caustic soda include solvents, plastics, fabrics, adhesives, coatings, herbicides, dyes, inks, pharmaceuticals and more. Pulp & paper industry is the largest consumer of caustic soda. It is being used in the processing of pulp, extraction and bleaching processes. It is also extensively used in the extraction of alumina. Other major applications are in textiles, soaps and detergents, cleaning products, natural gas and petroleum industries among many more. The report anticipates a high demand of caustic soda used in the extraction of alumina which will propel the growth of this market.  However, due to its corrosive properties and energy intensive production process the caustic soda market may see a reluctant growth. Another factor hindering the growth of this market is the increasing awareness about the environmental ill – effect caused by the PVC based products. Chlorine is used in the production of PVC products, thus affecting the caustic soda market Major players assessed in the report are: > Dow Chemical Company > Olin Corporation > AkzoNobel N.V. > Reliance Industries Limited > Occidental Petroleum Corporation > Tata Chemicals Limited > Befar Group Co. Ltd. > Xinjiang Zhongtai Chemical Co. Ltd. > FMC Corporation  > Formosa Plastics Corporation > INEOS ChlorVinyls  > Bayer Material Science AG Geographically, the market can be segmented as North-America, Europe, Latin America, Asia – Pacific and Middle East. The industrial and economic growth of countries such as China, India, Australia, and Brazil is fuelling the growth of caustic soda market uphill. The concentration of developing countries in the Asia – Pacific region is making it the fastest growing market among others. Moreover Africa is also an untapped market for this industry with lot of opportunities in the region. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. MARKET ANALYSIS OF CAUSTIC SODA 4. CAUSTIC SODA MARKET ANALYSIS BY APPLICATIONS 5. CAUSTIC SODA MARKET ANALYSIS BY REGION 6. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE OF CAUSTIC SODA COMPANIES 7. COMPANY PROFILES OF CAUSTIC SODA INDUSTRY DecisionDatabases.com is a global business research reports provider, enriching decision makers and strategists with qualitative statistics. DecisionDatabases.com is proficient in providing syndicated research report, customized research reports, company profiles and industry databases across multiple domains.   Our expert research analysts have been trained to map client’s research requirements to the correct research resource leading to a distinctive edge over its competitors. We provide intellectual, precise and meaningful data at a lightning speed.

DecisionDatabases.com offers Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Resins Market Research Report. This Report covers the complete Industry Outlook, Growth, Size, Share and Forecast Till 2021. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins are used to strengthen the material and manufacture versatile thermoplastics. Resins provide durability, versatility, economic viability, chemical resistance, recyclability, thermal and electrical insulation to the polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be converted either in rigid by adding resins or flexible products by adding plasticizers. PVC resins are used in the manufacturing of PVC based windows, pipes, window frames, fences, etc. to curtail heating and cooling expenses, owing to PVC’s thermo-insulating properties. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) use rely immensely on the construction market, hence give rise to resins based PVC applications. Piping, fittings, siding, windows, fencing, electrical and other applications are few examples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins based products. The resins based PVCs are replacing traditional materials in construction such as wood, glass and metals and adding cost effectiveness. Global polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins market is segmented on the basis of the types as suspension PVC, emulsion PVC, bulk polymerized PVC and copolymer PVC. Major applications of this market are building & construction, and piping followed by consumer goods, automotive, electrical, medical, packaging, furniture, and others. Global polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins market is encouraged by the growth and increase in demand of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products around the world. Asia Pacific is the leading market in terms of consumption of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Therefore, giving rise to the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins market. China, India and Taiwan are driving the global polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins. North America and Europe are also adding to the major demand for global polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins; U.S., U.K. and Germany are driving the market in those regions. Major players assessed in the report are: > Formosa Plastics Corporation > Hanhwa Chemical Corporation > INEOS ChlorVinyls > Australian Vinyls Corporation Pty Ltd > DuPont > Finolex Industries Ltd. > Kaneka Corporation > LG Chem > Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation > Reliance Industries Ltd. > Resin Technology, LLC. > Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. > Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. > Westlake Chemical Corporation DecisionDatabases is involved in providing research reports and company profiles in the global polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins market in terms of revenue and output/volume. Market drivers, opportunities and restraints are thoroughly studied which influences the market. This study is further utilized for the overall analysis of the market. The polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins market is segmented based on the global applications, geographic presence, by products and ingredients. We offer an inclusive category-specific market outlook. We provide access to a comprehensive collection of companies in the industry. The companies can strategize and execute business operations through our competitor analysis. Find the global industry analysis, market size, share, growth, and trends information in our polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins profiles. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. MARKET ANALYSIS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS 4. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS MARKET ANALYSIS BY TYPES 5. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS MARKET ANALYSIS BY APPLICATIONS  6. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS MARKET ANALYSIS BY REGION 7. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS COMPANIES 8. COMPANY PROFILES OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS DecisionDatabases.com is a global business research reports provider, enriching decision makers and strategists with qualitative statistics. DecisionDatabases.com is proficient in providing syndicated research report, customized research reports, company profiles and industry databases across multiple domains. Our expert research analysts have been trained to map client’s research requirements to the correct research resource leading to a distinctive edge over its competitors. We provide intellectual, precise and meaningful data at a lightning speed.

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