Nikzad R.,Industry Canada
World Patent Information | Year: 2014
The objective of this paper is to find the determinants of Canadian international patent activity at the industrial level. The paper achieves this goal in two steps. In the first step, Canadian worldwide patent applications are mapped into industry classifications. The paper draws on three different methods (Johnson, 2002 ; Schmoch etal., 2003 ; and Lybbert and Zolas, 2013 ) and two different data sources (EPO PATSTAT and OECD Triadic patent families) to do this task. In the next step, Canadian patent applications abroad are modeled by using a modified gravity model. The empirical results suggest that the industrial R&D and value added of Canada and destination countries as well as industrial exports are significant factors of Canadian patent activity abroad. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Nikzad R.,Industry Canada
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2015
The objective of this paper is to study the use of intellectual property (IP) rights by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The paper draws on different surveys and studies in selected countries, with an emphasis on Canadian SMEs, to compare the use and exploitation of IP by company size. The paper finds that despite the potential benefits of acquiring formal IP rights for SMEs, they use IP rights to a lesser degree than large companies due to several factors, mainly the low rate of innovation compared to large companies and the cost and complexity of the IP system. The paper also presents a framework to analyze whether there is a role for government to play in this area, and how the government could address this under-utilization of IP rights by SMEs. © The Author 2014.
Nikzad R.,Industry Canada
World Patent Information | Year: 2013
The aim of this paper is to present the patent profile of Canada and Canadian inventors. Different measures of patent statistics have been used to compare Canada's profile with that of other countries. Also, the patent intensity of technologies and industries has been presented. Comparing Canada's patent profile with that of other countries using different patent statistics suggests that Canadian companies do not utilize patents as much as their counterparts in other industrialized countries. This is despite the fact that IP protection in Canada is not an obstacle to innovation according to the surveys of Canadian innovative companies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Canada's new prime minister, Justin Trudeau, took office on 4 November — and as one of his first acts, created the post of Minister of Science. Kirsty Duncan, a medical geographer at the University of Toronto in Canada, will be the first to hold the job. Duncan, who contributed to the 2001 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, has also written a book about her expedition to Norway to determine the cause of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic. Her appointment marks a change from the government of former prime minister Stephen Harper. His administration placed oversight of science in the hands of a junior minister of state in the Industry Canada department. “Harper collapsed the purview of science into the purview of industry, and we've seen a dramatic decline of pure science and public interest research as a result,” says Carol Linnitt, an environmental policy analyst at the Vancouver-based non-profit environmental group DeSmog Canada. Scientists and science groups say that they are excited by Duncan's appointment but want to know more about the Minister of Science's responsibilities. “A real minister! And someone with a PhD!” says Marc Saner, former director of the Institute for Science, Society and Policy at the University of Ottawa. “From the point of view of image, it’s great. How this works in practice, I don’t know.” Trudeau has also appointed Navdeep Bains, a financial analyst, as Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development. “If we take it at face value, we now have two ministers responsible for science,” says Rees Kassen, a biologist at the University of Ottawa and chair of the Partnership Group for Science and Engineering, an Ottawa-based association of science and engineering organizations. He suspects that Duncan will work to ensure that the government conducts research in areas that universities and businesses are not exploring, whereas Bains will seek to encourage technological innovation in the private sector. Trudeau, who is expected to appoint a chief science advisor, has also named an environment minister — renaming the post as Minister of Environment and Climate Change. The new minister, Catherine McKenna, is a lawyer whose work has focused on international trade, investment and constitutional issues.
Boothby D.,Industry Canada |
Dufour A.,Industry Canada |
Tang J.,Industry Canada
Research Policy | Year: 2010
Advanced technologies are commonly thought to be complementary to skills. Firms that adopt new technologies (for example, computer-aided design and control) and at the same time invest in skills (for example, training in computer literacy and technical skills) are expected to realize greater productivity gains than those that do not. To validate this expectation, this paper first identifies the combinations of technologies and types of training that are commonly undertaken by firms, presumably as part of their strategies to effectively utilize the adopted technologies and to improve their economic performance. This paper then estimates the relationship between these common technology-training combinations and productivity performance. It shows that these combinations are associated with higher productivity. Crown Copyright © 2010.