Industry and Investment New South Wales

New South Wales, Australia

Industry and Investment New South Wales

New South Wales, Australia
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Pecl G.T.,University of Tasmania | Ward T.M.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Doubleday Z.A.,University of Adelaide | Clarke S.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | And 11 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Climate change driven alterations in the distribution and abundance of marine species, and the timing of their life history events (phenology), are being reported around the globe. However, we have limited capacity to detect and predict these responses, even for comparatively well studied commercial fishery species. Fisheries provide significant socio-economic benefits for many coastal communities, and early warning of potential changes to fish stocks will provide managers and other stakeholders with the best opportunity to adapt to these impacts. Rapid assessment methods that can estimate the sensitivity of species to climate change in a wide range of contexts are needed. This study establishes an objective, flexible and cost effective framework for prioritising future ecological research and subsequent investment in adaptation responses in the face of resource constraints. We build on an ecological risk assessment framework to assess relative sensitivities of commercial species to climate change drivers, specifically in relation to their distribution, abundance and phenology, and demonstrate our approach using key species within the fast warming region of south-eastern Australia. Our approach has enabled fisheries managers to understand likely changes to fisheries under a range of climate change scenarios, highlighted critical research gaps and priorities, and assisted marine industries to identify adaptation strategies that maximise positive outcomes. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Woodcock S.H.,University of Adelaide | Gillanders B.M.,University of Adelaide | Munro A.R.,University of Adelaide | Munro A.R.,Alaska Department of Fish and Game | And 2 more authors.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2011

Chemical marking of otoliths via immersion in solutions of enriched stable isotopes provides ameans of distinctively marking large batches of hatchery-produced fish. Four enriched stable isotopes (barium: 137Ba and 138Ba; strontium: 88Sr; magnesium: 24Mg) were used individually and in combination to determine mark success and the ability to correctly classify 15 unique batch marks in the otoliths of larval Murray cod Maccullochella peelii.Marking with the enriched stable isotopes 137Ba, 138Ba, and 88Sr (individually or in combination) produced clear and distinctive marks (98% mark success) with 93% of fish correctly classified to their respective isotope mark. Despite exposure of the fish to an altered Mg isotope ratio in the water, a corresponding shift in the otoliths was not observed (8% mark success), and many 24Mg-enriched fish were misclassified. Due to the low cost and minimal effects on hatchery protocols, the use of Sr and Ba isotopes to mark hatchery-reared fish at the larval stage has the potential to be a powerful tool in the production and management of a wide range of fish species. © American Fisheries Society 2011.

Woodcock S.H.,University of Adelaide | Gillanders B.M.,University of Adelaide | Munro A.R.,University of Adelaide | McGovern F.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2011

Enriched stable isotope immersion techniques were used to mark the otoliths of larval golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) immediately post-hatch. Two experiments were undertaken: the first involved rearing larvae in water enriched with three concentrations of 137Ba for 1-5days. Marks were produced in as little as 1day; however, otolith isotope ratios reached equilibrium with the water in 5days at 90μg·l -1. The second experiment involved rearing larvae in isotope enriched water with combinations of stable isotopes of Ba and Mg for 4days after hatching. Seven significantly different isotopic signatures were produced using three Ba isotopes, which were reflective of the water. Only slight differences were found in otoliths of larvae that were reared in combinations of Mg isotopes, which did not reflect the water chemistry. The length of golden perch at 3weeks of age showed that isotope immersion did not negatively affect early growth. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Reynolds O.L.,Charles Sturt University | Orchard B.A.,Industry and Investment New South Wales
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2011

Control of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations or outbreaks may be achieved through the mass-rearing and inundative release of sterile B. tryoni. An alternative release method is to release chilled adult sterile fruit flies to decrease packaging and transport requirements and potentially improve release efficiencies. Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of chilling on the performance of two separate batches of adult B. tryoni, fed either a protein and sucrose diet or sucrose only diet. The first trial compared chill times of 0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h; the second trial compared chill times of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. Overall, there was little or no affect of chilling on the recovery, longevity and flight ability of B. tryoni chilled at 4°C. Recovery time can take up to 15 min for chilled adult flies. There was no effect of chill time on longevity although females generally had greater longevity on either diet compared with males. Propensity for flight was not adversely affected by chilling at the lower chill times in trial 1; however, in trial 2, adults fed on a protein and sucrose diet had a decreased tendency for flight as the chilling time increased. Fly body size did not affect recovery times although the smaller adult B. tryoni in trial 1 had significantly reduced longevity compared to the larger adults in trial 2. Implications of these findings for B. tryoni SIT are discussed. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Reynolds O.L.,Charles Sturt University | Dominiak B.C.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Dominiak B.C.,Macquarie University | Orchard B.A.,Industry and Investment New South Wales
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), is the most significant pest of edible fruit in Australia. For the control of B. tryoni using sterile insect technique (SIT), either pupae or adults may be released. Using pupal release, this study tested the seasonal effect of different pupal loadings on eclosion and the flight of sterile B. tryoni. Pupal eclosion boxes were loaded with either 200, 350, 500, 650 or 800 g of pupae during five periods of the fruit fly season (August, October, December, February and April). Adult flies were allowed to emerge and the remaining pupal debris was sampled to determine the per cent emergence and per cent fliers. The duration of emergence, dye retention on the ptilinum of the flies, and temperature and relative humidity externally and internally of the eclosion boxes were recorded. The percentage of emergence was influenced by both pupal loading and the period of release. Overall, the percentage of emergence was lower for loadings of 200 and 350 g of pupae in August, October and April as compared with the 500 g or higher loadings. This difference was not apparent in December or February. The mean percentage of emergence for each pupal loading in December, February and April was well above 65%, the minimum required emergence parameter for successful sterile B. tryoni release. Across all pupal loadings, the percentage of fliers was greater than 99.3% in December, 87.8% in February and 80.8% in April. A high percentage of fliers (>92.7%) was recorded in October, but the percentage of emergence in August and October was below 65% for all pupal loadings; thus pupal release is a suboptimal SIT method during this period of time. Dye on the ptilinum was detected on every fruit fly sampled across all pupal loadings and release periods. Minimum temperature for optimal pupal emergence should not fall below 10°C, and the maximum should not exceed 35°C. Minimum temperature for successful flight should not fall below approximately 6°C while the maximum temperature should exceed 16°C. The described pupal release system is considered a possible option for use as part of an SIT program against B. tryoni under suitable environmental conditions in Australia. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society.

Kay I.R.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Herron G.A.,Industry and Investment New South Wales
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

Insecticides are used by growers to control Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips) in Australian vegetable crops. However, limited information was available on the efficacy of some insecticides used against F. occidentalis and data on new insecticides that could be included in a resistance management program were required. The efficacy of 16 insecticides in controlling F. occidentalis was tested in four small plot trials in chillies and capsicums. Spinosad, fipronil and methamidophos were effective against adults and larvae. Spirotetramat had no efficacy against adults but was very effective against larvae. Pyridalyl was moderately effective against larvae. Methidathion showed limited effectiveness. Abamectin, amorphous silica, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, emamectin benzoate, endosulfan, imidacloprid, methomyl and insecticidal soap were not effective. Laboratory bioassays on F. occidentalis collected from the field trials showed resistance to bifenthrin but not to the other insecticides tested. The trials demonstrated that some insecticides permitted for use against F. occidentalis are not effective and identified a number of insecticides, including the new ones spirotetramat and pyridalyl, that are effective and that could be used to manage the pest within a resistance management program. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society.

Ferdinands K.,The Arts and Sport | Virtue J.,Khan Research Laboratories | Johnson S.B.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Setterfield S.A.,Charles Darwin University
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2011

The growth of the bioeconomy, and in particular the debate regarding the use of biofuels, highlights how innovation in agriculture driven by new policy initiatives, with the best of intentions (e.g. reducing carbon emissions and reliance on fossil fuels), may have unintended consequences. These unintended consequences include a variety of socioeconomic and environmental impacts that arise because of a decoupling of agricultural/industrial growth or innovation from consideration of environmental and social impacts. This issue is not new and has long existed in relation to the use of alien plants for production or ornamental purposes-hence our use of the term 'bio-insecurities'. We discuss the role and refinements needed in existing weed risk management systems and existing policies to achieve a more sustainable and defensible approach to the use of alien plants in the bioeconomy. © 2011.

Dominiak B.C.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Dominiak B.C.,Macquarie University
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

The recognition of grapes as a host of Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Qfly) has been inconsistent across Australian states due to the variable nature of reports. Here the current state of knowledge is reviewed. Grapes are not a preferred Qfly host and attacks are infrequent. Infestations were reported to be more common in coastal and subtropical areas or in periods of high rainfall associated with the low availability of preferred hosts. Egg survival appears to be low, although larval survival may be considerably higher. This review has identified a range of literature referring to grapes as a host of Qfly. A review of overseas literature also indicates that grapes are a host for several other fruit fly species. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Faulks L.K.,Macquarie University | Gilligan D.M.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Beheregaray L.B.,Macquarie University | Beheregaray L.B.,Flinders University
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2011

Abstract Habitat fragmentation is one of the leading causes of population declines, threatening ecosystems worldwide. Freshwater taxa may be particularly sensitive to habitat loss as connectivity between suitable patches of habitat is restricted not only by the natural stream network but also by anthropogenic factors. Using a landscape genetics approach, we assessed the impact of habitat availability on population genetic diversity and connectivity of an endangered Australian freshwater fish Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Percichthyidae). The relative contribution of anthropogenic versus natural in-stream habitat structures in shaping genetic structure and diversity in M. australasica was quite striking. Genetic diversity was significantly higher in locations with a higher river slope, a correlate of the species preferred habitat - riffles. On the other hand, barriers degrade preferred habitat and impede dispersal, contributing to the degree of genetic differentiation among populations. Our results highlight the importance of landscape genetics to understanding the environmental factors affecting freshwater fish populations and the potential practical application of this approach to conservation management of other freshwater organisms. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Johnson S.B.,Industry and Investment New South Wales
Plant Protection Quarterly | Year: 2011

Society is constantly changing. The people we seek to engage are no different. Successful engagement in a changing society requires continual assessment of our communication techniques. This will mean examining time worn methods to ensure we continue to be successful. One way to continue to successfully engage others is to understand their basic values and key drivers. Many of these are influenced by society. Examining current societal values can help us do this, as can critical analysis about how society may change in the future. This paper describes five key societal changes since at least the 1980s: the increased busyness of people and the world; the workplace gender revolution; the decrease in public investment in education; the demographic shift in the workforce/community; and the information technology revolution. It describes how these changes are impacting in our society and poses ideas about how we can continue to successfully engage people in a changing society. © R.G. Richardson 2011.

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