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New South Wales, Australia

Pecl G.T.,University of Tasmania | Ward T.M.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Doubleday Z.A.,University of Adelaide | Clarke S.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | And 11 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Climate change driven alterations in the distribution and abundance of marine species, and the timing of their life history events (phenology), are being reported around the globe. However, we have limited capacity to detect and predict these responses, even for comparatively well studied commercial fishery species. Fisheries provide significant socio-economic benefits for many coastal communities, and early warning of potential changes to fish stocks will provide managers and other stakeholders with the best opportunity to adapt to these impacts. Rapid assessment methods that can estimate the sensitivity of species to climate change in a wide range of contexts are needed. This study establishes an objective, flexible and cost effective framework for prioritising future ecological research and subsequent investment in adaptation responses in the face of resource constraints. We build on an ecological risk assessment framework to assess relative sensitivities of commercial species to climate change drivers, specifically in relation to their distribution, abundance and phenology, and demonstrate our approach using key species within the fast warming region of south-eastern Australia. Our approach has enabled fisheries managers to understand likely changes to fisheries under a range of climate change scenarios, highlighted critical research gaps and priorities, and assisted marine industries to identify adaptation strategies that maximise positive outcomes. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Reynolds O.L.,Charles Sturt University | Dominiak B.C.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Dominiak B.C.,Macquarie University | Orchard B.A.,Industry and Investment New South Wales
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), is the most significant pest of edible fruit in Australia. For the control of B. tryoni using sterile insect technique (SIT), either pupae or adults may be released. Using pupal release, this study tested the seasonal effect of different pupal loadings on eclosion and the flight of sterile B. tryoni. Pupal eclosion boxes were loaded with either 200, 350, 500, 650 or 800 g of pupae during five periods of the fruit fly season (August, October, December, February and April). Adult flies were allowed to emerge and the remaining pupal debris was sampled to determine the per cent emergence and per cent fliers. The duration of emergence, dye retention on the ptilinum of the flies, and temperature and relative humidity externally and internally of the eclosion boxes were recorded. The percentage of emergence was influenced by both pupal loading and the period of release. Overall, the percentage of emergence was lower for loadings of 200 and 350 g of pupae in August, October and April as compared with the 500 g or higher loadings. This difference was not apparent in December or February. The mean percentage of emergence for each pupal loading in December, February and April was well above 65%, the minimum required emergence parameter for successful sterile B. tryoni release. Across all pupal loadings, the percentage of fliers was greater than 99.3% in December, 87.8% in February and 80.8% in April. A high percentage of fliers (>92.7%) was recorded in October, but the percentage of emergence in August and October was below 65% for all pupal loadings; thus pupal release is a suboptimal SIT method during this period of time. Dye on the ptilinum was detected on every fruit fly sampled across all pupal loadings and release periods. Minimum temperature for optimal pupal emergence should not fall below 10°C, and the maximum should not exceed 35°C. Minimum temperature for successful flight should not fall below approximately 6°C while the maximum temperature should exceed 16°C. The described pupal release system is considered a possible option for use as part of an SIT program against B. tryoni under suitable environmental conditions in Australia. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society. Source

Dominiak B.C.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Dominiak B.C.,Macquarie University
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

The recognition of grapes as a host of Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Qfly) has been inconsistent across Australian states due to the variable nature of reports. Here the current state of knowledge is reviewed. Grapes are not a preferred Qfly host and attacks are infrequent. Infestations were reported to be more common in coastal and subtropical areas or in periods of high rainfall associated with the low availability of preferred hosts. Egg survival appears to be low, although larval survival may be considerably higher. This review has identified a range of literature referring to grapes as a host of Qfly. A review of overseas literature also indicates that grapes are a host for several other fruit fly species. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ferdinands K.,The Arts and Sport | Virtue J.,Khan Research Laboratories | Johnson S.B.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Setterfield S.A.,Charles Darwin University
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2011

The growth of the bioeconomy, and in particular the debate regarding the use of biofuels, highlights how innovation in agriculture driven by new policy initiatives, with the best of intentions (e.g. reducing carbon emissions and reliance on fossil fuels), may have unintended consequences. These unintended consequences include a variety of socioeconomic and environmental impacts that arise because of a decoupling of agricultural/industrial growth or innovation from consideration of environmental and social impacts. This issue is not new and has long existed in relation to the use of alien plants for production or ornamental purposes-hence our use of the term 'bio-insecurities'. We discuss the role and refinements needed in existing weed risk management systems and existing policies to achieve a more sustainable and defensible approach to the use of alien plants in the bioeconomy. © 2011. Source

Faulks L.K.,Macquarie University | Gilligan D.M.,Industry and Investment New South Wales | Beheregaray L.B.,Macquarie University | Beheregaray L.B.,Flinders University
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2011

Abstract Habitat fragmentation is one of the leading causes of population declines, threatening ecosystems worldwide. Freshwater taxa may be particularly sensitive to habitat loss as connectivity between suitable patches of habitat is restricted not only by the natural stream network but also by anthropogenic factors. Using a landscape genetics approach, we assessed the impact of habitat availability on population genetic diversity and connectivity of an endangered Australian freshwater fish Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Percichthyidae). The relative contribution of anthropogenic versus natural in-stream habitat structures in shaping genetic structure and diversity in M. australasica was quite striking. Genetic diversity was significantly higher in locations with a higher river slope, a correlate of the species preferred habitat - riffles. On the other hand, barriers degrade preferred habitat and impede dispersal, contributing to the degree of genetic differentiation among populations. Our results highlight the importance of landscape genetics to understanding the environmental factors affecting freshwater fish populations and the potential practical application of this approach to conservation management of other freshwater organisms. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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