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Ramteke P.W.,Allahabad University | Awasthi S.,Common Effluent Treatment Plant | Srinath T.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Srinath T.,Indian Institute of Science | Joseph B.,Acharya Institute of science andhrahalli
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the course of treatment in CETP. A reduction of 98.46%, 87.5%, and 96.15% in bacterial counts especially in pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were observed after treatment. Pathogens were not detected in the dried sludge. Complete elimination of fecal streptococci was observed in treated effluent. Around 10.8% of microbial isolates from the effluent showed ability to reduce chromate >90%. In treated effluent chromium level was 5.48 mg/L, which exceeds the statutory limit of Indian standards. Cleaner production options to reduce chromium levels before discharging into water bodies is discussed. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.


Saxena S.,University of Lucknow | Khanna V.K.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Pant A.B.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Meyer C.H.,University of Bonn | Singh V.K.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute
Pathobiology | Year: 2011

Objective: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was evaluated in the serum of patients with proliferative stage of Eales' disease to study its relation with the area of retinal capillary non-perfusion (ischemic retina). Methods: Quantification of the levels of TNF was done using sandwich ELISA in 52 cases with proliferative Eales' disease and in 32 healthy controls. Seven 50° photographs of different fields of the fundus were taken on fluorescein angiography. The area of retinal capillary non-perfusion denoting retinal cell death was assessed in terms of optic disc areas. Results: TNF levels were found to be significantly increased in the proliferative stage of the disease (mean 23.64 ± 3.7 pg/ml) as compared to controls (mean 12.49 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p < 0.001). Higher levels of TNF were found to be associated with an increased area of retinal capillary non-perfusion on fluorescein angiography. TNF levels of 20-31 pg/ml were observed in cases with neovascularization at the disc (n = 33) as compared to 17-21 pg/ml in cases with neovascularization elsewhere (n = 19). Conclusions: An increasedlevel of TNF is associated with an increased area of the ischemic retina. It is hypothesized that retinal cell death signaling in proliferative Eales' disease is related to an increased TNF level. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Tabata M.,Tohoku University | Endo R.,Tohoku University | Ito M.,Tohoku University | Ohtsubo Y.,Tohoku University | And 3 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

A γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. MM-1, was isolated from soil contaminated with HCH isomers. Cultivation of MM-1 in the presence of γ-HCH led to the detection of five γ-HCH metabolites, γ-pentachlorocyclohexene, 2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1, 4-diol, 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol, strongly suggesting that MM-1 has the lin genes for γ-HCH degradation originally identified in the wellstudied γ-HCH-degrading strain Sphingobium japonicum UT26. Southern blot, PCR amplification, and sequencing analyses indicated that MM-1 has seven lin genes for the conversion of γ-HCH to β-ketoadipate (six structural genes, linA to linF, and one regulatory gene, linR). MM-1 carried four plasmids, of 200, 50, 40, and 30 kb. Southern blot analysis revealed that all seven lin genes were dispersed across three of the four plasmids, and that IS6100, often found close to the lin genes, was present on all four plasmids.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecotoxicology (London, England) | Year: 2013

Channa punctatus a freshwater fish exposed to carbofuran (0.6 mg l(-1)) for 15 days exhibited alterations in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. NE levels increased in the cerebellum and decreased in the medulla and cerebral cortex relative to the controls. Increased DA levels were observed in the cerebellum and medulla whereas DA levels decreased in the cerebral cortex relative to the controls. Depletion of 5-HT was noticed in the cerebellum, medulla and cerebral cortex relative to controls. The results suggested an overall decrease in the level of neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex region of the brain. The neurotoxic effect of carbofuran was not uniform in the brain but was localized to the brain regions which regulate motor activity and behaviour in fish.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

Endosulfan tolerant lines of mustard (Brassica campestris cv. Brown Sarson) have been developed through tissue culture methods. Cotyledonary expiants excised from eight day old in vitro grown seedlings were used for inducing callus. Fast growing friable callus was then transferred to MS medium containing (0.1-2.0 ugl(-1)) endosulfan for selection. Five alternating exposures with and without endosulfan containing medium yielded an endosulfan tolerant cell line (ETL). The plants regenerated from ETL were found to tolerate three fold higher concentrations of endosulfan. Callus induced from randomly selected endosulfan tolerant regenerated plants were also tolerant to 3.0 ugl endosulfan, thereby, suggesting that tolerance has been acquired at the gene level.Biochemical investigation revealed higher levels of total free sugar, free amino acids, protein and activity of peroxidase in the tolerant cell line.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecotoxicology (London, England) | Year: 2013

: The effect of Ca on the uptake of Cd by root and leaves of Salvinia molesta was investigated at different time intervals and under different photoperiods. For detailed study on uptake and interaction, (15)Ca and (109)Cd were used and it was found that there was a higher uptake of (45)Ca in the root and leaves at 48 h and a concurrent reduction in (109)Cd content at 48 h suggesting alterations in Ca functions due to the phytotoxicity of Cd. Ultrastructural changes due to cadmium toxicity included swirling of thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts as well as detachment of the tips of trichomes from the leaf.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2013

One thousand three-hundred and ninety-four drinking water sources comprising ground water, surface water and piped supplies were tested in order to compare the presence-absence (P-A) test with standard MPN method to detect coliforms as indicators of water quality. Out of 1394 samples, 1074 (77.04%) and 1030 (74.88%) were positive by the MPN and P-A test, respectively. The P-A test detected 96% of the positives detected by the MPN test. The P-A test may be effectively used as a rapid screening method to detect coliform contamination in less polluted sources such as ground water and piped supplies.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecotoxicology (London, England) | Year: 2013

: The effects of 0.1 ppm cadmium and 0.005% linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) on the uptake and metabolic incorporation of (14)C glycine by Lemna minor L., after 2, 24 and 48 h were studied for antagonistic/synergistic effects. Combined exposure was found to decrease the (14)C incorporation into proteins, DNA, RNA and phospholipids, to a greater extent than individual exposure. The presence of LAS increased the uptake of (109)Cd in the plants.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2013

Water samples from 30 rivers in northern and north-eastern hilly states of India were analysed for bacteriological and physicochemical parameters along with metals and pesticide residues. It was found that 34% of samples had >50 coliforms/100 ml, while 24% of samples demonstrated >50 thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms/100 ml. Among the metals, iron was found to be above maximum permissible limits in the rivers of all the states, while manganese was found to be above the maximum permissible limit in the rivers of Tripura and some northern states. Zinc, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, cobalt and cadmium plus physicochemical parameters and residual pesticides, however, were within their maximum permissible limits.


PubMed | Industrial Toxicology Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2013

The sources of toxic xenobiotics and different factors such as ecological diversity, differences in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, food chain variation, interrelationship within species and life span, etc., are considered during risk assessment of pollutants, and their impact on aquatic ecotoxicology is identified. A fugacity and multimedia compartment model is suggested, based on toxicodynamic (toxicity of the chemical) and toxicokinetic (metabolism of the chemical) considerations to predict and screen the behaviour of pollutants quantitatively in the aquatic environment. The significance of the risk analysis approach in anticipatory actions and regulation of pollution levels is discussed.

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