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Maqbool S.B.,Syracuse University | Ahmad A.,University of Pittsburgh | Dhawan A.,Michigan State University | Dhawan A.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2010

Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400 was exposed to Allium cepa (onion) extract to investigate the expression of selected putative genes including four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degrading genes ibphA, bphE, bphF and bphG). B. xenovorans strain LB400 is renowned for its appetite towards the most difficult to degrade compounds in soil. Onion, medicinally important as well as antibacterial and antifungal plant, was used in this study to further investigate the nutritional versatility of LB400. A cDNA microarray containing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products of 530 selected genes of LB400 was prepared. Total RNAs isolated from LB400 cells grown in minimal medium (M9) and minimal medium supplemented with 1% onion extract (M90) were used as targets for hybridization to the LB400 array. A novel DNA-RNA detection system with indirect labeling was used to obtain the mRNA abundance under the two conditions. Approximately, 12% of the total genes included on the array were expressed significantly above the background level in M9 while more than 36% were expressed in M90. Comparing the transcripts expression in M90 to M9 identified the difference in the expression level of about 60 genes including bphA, bphE and bphG. Further, it was observed that onion extract enhanced the growth of LB400. Approximately, 30% increase in the growth rate of LB400 was observed due to the addition of onion extract in M9 compared to M9 without onion extract, at both 24 and 48 h after the inoculation. Hybridization analyses using varying amounts of total RNA also revealed a linear correlation between the amount of targeted RNA (1, 5 and 10 ug of total RNA) and signal intensity of the hybridized genes. These results indicate that onion extract has the potential to support and enhance the growth of B. xenovorans strain LB400, as well as positively regulate the expression of PCBs degrading genes. Further, LB400 maybe a virulent pathogen of onion. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Ramteke P.W.,Allahabad University | Awasthi S.,Common Effluent Treatment Plant | Srinath T.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Srinath T.,Indian Institute of Science | Joseph B.,Acharya Institute of science andhrahalli
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the course of treatment in CETP. A reduction of 98.46%, 87.5%, and 96.15% in bacterial counts especially in pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were observed after treatment. Pathogens were not detected in the dried sludge. Complete elimination of fecal streptococci was observed in treated effluent. Around 10.8% of microbial isolates from the effluent showed ability to reduce chromate >90%. In treated effluent chromium level was 5.48 mg/L, which exceeds the statutory limit of Indian standards. Cleaner production options to reduce chromium levels before discharging into water bodies is discussed. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Tabata M.,Tohoku University | Endo R.,Tohoku University | Ito M.,Tohoku University | Ohtsubo Y.,Tohoku University | And 3 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

A γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. MM-1, was isolated from soil contaminated with HCH isomers. Cultivation of MM-1 in the presence of γ-HCH led to the detection of five γ-HCH metabolites, γ-pentachlorocyclohexene, 2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1, 4-diol, 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,5-dichlorophenol, strongly suggesting that MM-1 has the lin genes for γ-HCH degradation originally identified in the wellstudied γ-HCH-degrading strain Sphingobium japonicum UT26. Southern blot, PCR amplification, and sequencing analyses indicated that MM-1 has seven lin genes for the conversion of γ-HCH to β-ketoadipate (six structural genes, linA to linF, and one regulatory gene, linR). MM-1 carried four plasmids, of 200, 50, 40, and 30 kb. Southern blot analysis revealed that all seven lin genes were dispersed across three of the four plasmids, and that IS6100, often found close to the lin genes, was present on all four plasmids. Source

Saxena S.,University of Lucknow | Khanna V.K.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Pant A.B.,Industrial Toxicology Research Center | Meyer C.H.,University of Bonn | Singh V.K.,Armed forces Radiobiology Research Institute
Pathobiology | Year: 2011

Objective: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was evaluated in the serum of patients with proliferative stage of Eales' disease to study its relation with the area of retinal capillary non-perfusion (ischemic retina). Methods: Quantification of the levels of TNF was done using sandwich ELISA in 52 cases with proliferative Eales' disease and in 32 healthy controls. Seven 50° photographs of different fields of the fundus were taken on fluorescein angiography. The area of retinal capillary non-perfusion denoting retinal cell death was assessed in terms of optic disc areas. Results: TNF levels were found to be significantly increased in the proliferative stage of the disease (mean 23.64 ± 3.7 pg/ml) as compared to controls (mean 12.49 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p < 0.001). Higher levels of TNF were found to be associated with an increased area of retinal capillary non-perfusion on fluorescein angiography. TNF levels of 20-31 pg/ml were observed in cases with neovascularization at the disc (n = 33) as compared to 17-21 pg/ml in cases with neovascularization elsewhere (n = 19). Conclusions: An increasedlevel of TNF is associated with an increased area of the ischemic retina. It is hypothesized that retinal cell death signaling in proliferative Eales' disease is related to an increased TNF level. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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