Industrial Technology Institute

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Industrial Technology Institute

Colombo, Sri Lanka
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Arawwawala L.D.A.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Thabrew M.I.,University of Kelaniya | Arambewela L.S.R.,Industrial Technology Institute
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to scientifically investigate whether Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn (Family: Cucurbitaceae) has gastroprotective activity. Materials and methods: All the experiments were conducted using Wistar strain rats (weight: 200-220. g). The food and water given to rats was withdrawn for 36 and 12. h respectively, before the commencement of the experiment. These rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8 rats/group; 4 males. +. 4 females) and groups 1-3 were orally administrated with hot water extract (HWE) at a dose of 375, 500 and 750. mg/kg, respectively. Group 4 was orally treated with equal volume of distilled water (1. mL; control), group 5 was orally treated with a reference drug, cimetidine (100. mg/kg) while the group 6 was orally treated with another reference drug, sucralfate (400. mg/kg). In the indomethacin experiment, only one dose of HWE (750. mg/kg) was tested, as this was found to have the maximum effect in the alcohol model also. Results: Results show that the HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina possesses significant (P≤0.05) and dose dependent gastroprotective effects in the alcohol model in terms of the length and number of gastric lesions mediated by alcohol, with a maximum effect at 750. mg/kg (inhibition of lesion length by 92%; number of gastric lesions by 88%). The same dose also mediated a significant (P≤0.05) gastroprotective activity in the indomethacine model (inhibition of lesion length by 88%; number of gastric lesions by 84%). In both models, the protective effect demonstrated by the HWE was comparable with that produced by cimetidine. The HWE significantly (P≤0.05) increased the amount of mucus produced by the rat gastro mucosa (by 39%) and reduced the gastric acidity (total acidity by 36%; free acidity by 40%). pH of the gastric juice increased from 4.1 to 6.0. However, no change in the volume of gastric juice was observed. Further, HWE showed potent antihistamine activity. Conclusion: It may be concluded that HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina exerts a significant protection against ethanol or indomethacin induced gastric damage. Increasing the protective mucus layer, decreasing the acidity of the gastric juice and antihistamine activity are probable mechanisms by which the HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina mediates its gastroprotective actions. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Fari M.J.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Rajapaksa D.,Industrial Technology Institute | Ranaweera K.K.D.S.,University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka | Year: 2011

The physicochemical properties of eight popular Sri Lankan rice varieties (Bg 300, Bg 352, Bg 403, Bg 94-1, Ld 356, Bw 272-6b, At 405 and At 306) and the quality characteristics of noodles made from these varieties of rice were investigated. The physicochemical properties investigated were amylose content (AC), crude protein, fat content, starch properties and amylograph pasting properties. Rice noodles were prepared by gelatinization of dough made with rice flour followed by cold extrusion. Rice noodle samples were evaluated for cooking loss, swelling ratio, tensile strength, extensibility, elastic recovery, firmness and sensory properties. AC of rice varieties ranged from 18.65±1.19% in At 405 to 30.43±0.20 % in Bg 94-1. Swelling volume and swelling power were significantly different (p<0.05) among the rice varieties tested. Amylograph pasting properties of rice varieties showed a significant (p<0.05) variation for all the pasting parameters. Cooking loss was high in At 405 (19.17±3.50), and low in Bg 403 (9.19±0.33). Tensile strength was significantly high for Bg 352 (16.7±3.4 g) and it was significantly low for At 405 (8.0±1.7 g). Overall acceptability of rice noodles prepared from At 405 had the significantly lower score and rice noodles from Bg 300 had a significantly higher value. The physicochemical and amylograph pasting properties of rice varieties had a significant influence on the cooking, textural and sensory properties of rice noodles. Amylose content showed significant negative correlation with cooking loss (r = - 0.802, p<0.001) and significant positive correlation with swelling ratio (r = 0.809, p<0.001) of noodles. Amylose content showed positive significant correlation with tensile strength, extensibility and elastic recovery at p<0.05. Rice noodles made from local rice varieties with high amylose content showed desirable quality characteristics.


Arambewela L.S.R.,Industrial Technology Institute | Arawwawala L.D.A.M.,Industrial Technology Institute
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2010

Background: Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medicinal systems of Sri Lanka. Methods: The present investigation was carried out to standardize the rhizomes of A. calcarata by (a) screening for phytochemicals (b) determination of physico-chemical parameters and (c) development of a Densitogram. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in A. calcarata rhizomes. The percentages of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol extractable matter and water extractable matter were of 5.5 - 6.8, 8.3 - 8.8, 0.036 - 0.040, 7.2 - 7.8, 22.6 - 24.8 and 18.6 - 20.5 respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study can be used to standardize rhizomes of A. calcarata grown in Sri Lanka.


Arawwawala M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Thabrew I.,University of Colombo | Arambewela L.,Industrial Technology Institute | Handunnetti S.,University of Colombo
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is one of the medicinal plants that is often used in Sri Lankan traditional systems of medicine. One of its uses is the treatment of inflammatory conditions. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of Trichosanthes cucumerina hot water extract (HWE) and its fractions. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina was evaluated by use of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in Wistar rats. In addition, the mechanism/s by which Trichosanthes cucumerina is mediated the anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by determining its effects on (a) membrane stabilizing activity and (b) nitric oxide inhibitory activity. Results: Apart from the lowest dose of the HWE, other tested doses (500, 750, 1000. mg/kg) produced a significant (P≤ 0.05) inhibition of the inflammation, most pronounced at 5. h after the injection of carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by 750. mg/kg, was comparable to that of the reference drug, indomethacin at 4 and 5. h. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production and membrane stabilization activities are probable mechanisms by which Trichosanthes cucumerina mediates its anti-inflammatory actions. Among the tested fractions, methanol fraction (MEF) and aqueous fraction (AQF) at a dose of 75. mg/kg exhibited marked inhibition against carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by MEF, was comparable to that of the reference drug, indomethacin and as well as to the 750. mg/kg of HWE at 4 and 5. h. Conclusions: (a) These findings rationalize the traditional usage of this plant as an anti-inflammatory agent and (b) membrane stabilizing properties and NO inhibitory activity are possible mechanisms through which Trichosanthes cucumerina mediates its anti-inflammatory action. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Akalanka G.C.,Industrial Technology Institute | Muthukumarana P.R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Wijesekara R.G.S.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ethnopharmacological relevance Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. Materials and methods The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Results A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of formulae. These formulae include oral administration (172 plant species), external bandaging (167 plant species), oiling for external application (34 plant species), steaming (33 plant species), creaming for wounds (6 plant species), nasal treatments (40 plant species), head treatments (23 plant species), treatment for eyes (4 plant species) and washing of wounds (9 plant species). Moreover, plants used for the different snake types, constraints faced by traditional practitioners, and their constructive suggestions were also discussed. Conclusion A pioneering attempt was made to exploit local knowledge on snakebite treatments for the conservation of valued medicinal plants and to promote primary health care needs in Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces in Sri Lanka. The documented plants together with the traditional knowledge could be effectively utilized for the isolation and characterization of antivenom for different snake species. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Arawwawala L.D.A.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Arambewela L.S.R.,Industrial Technology Institute | Ratnasooriya W.D.,University of Colombo
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012

Aim of the study: Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes are often used in Sri Lankan traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma and arthritis. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties. However, validity of the antiinflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antiinflammatory potential of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes using hot water extract (AWE) and hot ethanolic extract (AEE). Materials and Methods: The antiinflammatory activity of Alpinia calcarata was evaluated by use of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats. In addition, the mechanism/s by which Alpinia calcarata is mediated the antinflammatory activity was assessed by determining its effects on (a) membrane stabilizing, (b) antihistamine and (c) prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity. Results: All the tested doses of AWE and AEE (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant (P ≤ 0.05) inhibition of the inflammation, most pronounced at 4 h after the injection of carrageenan. The antiinflammatory effect induced by 500 mg/kg of AEE was superior than the reference drug, indomethacin at 4 h. Inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin synthesis production is probable mechanisms by which Alpinia calcarata mediates its antiinflammatory action. Conclusion: These findings rationalize the traditional usage of Alpinia calcarata as an antiinflammatory agent for the first time. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Siriwardane A.S.,Industrial Technology Institute | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Samarasinghe K.,Industrial Technology Institute
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at λmax = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (Rf 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf> bark> stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Ranasinghe P.,University of Colombo | Pigera S.,University of Colombo | Premakumara G.A.S.,Industrial Technology Institute | Galappaththy P.,University of Colombo | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: " Cinnamomum zeylanicum", " Ceylon cinnamon", " True cinnamon" and " Sri Lankan cinnamon". To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results: The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions: The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public health implications. © 2013 Ranasinghe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Fernando I.D.N.S.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Abeysinghe D.C.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal herb used in Ayurvedic and traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of an array of ailments. Diverse therapeutic properties reported from W. somnifera are mainly due to the high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities present in different parts of the plant. Present study investigates the total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of different parts of three different growth stages of W. somnifera grown under three different spacing levels. The TAC and TPC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and modified Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method respectively. Leaf extract exhibited significantly higher (p<. 0.05) TAC and TPC values for all three different growth stages. However, the highest TAC and TPC of leaf extract for all three spacing levels were observed just after flowering stage. The highest total phenolic content was exhibited in leaf extracts followed by flower, fruits, stem and roots respectively. With regard to the anti oxidant content, the highest amount was recorded from leaf followed by pods, flowers, stem and roots respectively. Presence of higher TPC and TAC just after flowering stage scientifically validates traditional claims of harvesting of W. somnifera after flowering stage. The higher content of TPC and TAC in leaf demonstrated the possibility of incorporation leaf for the development of newer, effective drugs instead of roots. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kankanamalage T.N.M.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Abeysinghe D.C.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Wijesekara R.G.S.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Sri Lanka has rich traditional systems of medicine, which cater to 60-70% of the rural population's primary health care needs. However, development of existing systems has been hindered by the unavailability of up-to-date information on medicinal materials and other related issues. For streamlining purposes, we investigated the present-day scenario of country's medicinal plant industry by gathering up-to-date information on the types of raw materials required, their aggregate quantities, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by stakeholders as well as other pertinent issues. Materials and methods The present survey covered the selected government Ayurveda hospitals, traditional and Ayurveda practitioners, large and small-scale herbal drug and cosmetic manufactures, importers, collectors and Ayurveda commissioners throughout the country. A systematic questionnaire was distributed and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Results A diverse range of medicinal materials, including 290 species (64.73%) from dried plants, 59 (13.17%) from fresh plants, 69 (15.40%) from minerals, 18 (4.02%) from animal sources and 12 (2.68%) from other sources were recorded. A total of 302 plant species belonging to 95 families, dominated by Leguminosae family, was listed. Out of these, 46 species belonging to 35 families were used intensively. A large portion of herbal materials was of completely local origin (71.13%) while 26% were imported and the rest (2.87%) can be obtained by both routes. Leaves were the most highly used part of the plant (22.2%). High price, poor quality, insufficient or totally absence of continuous supply and adulteration were the main constraints faced by the stakeholders. The unavailability of systematic cultivation and processing protocols, incorrect identification, and lack of proper quality control methodologies were identified as major challenges of the industry. Conclusion The present study revealed a currently bleak scenario of the medicinal material industry in Sri Lanka. The results clearly demonstrated the need to implement a national strategy to address the major challenges faced by different stakeholders. Information generated through this study could be effectively incorporated for the formulation of a sustainable development strategy for this industry. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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