Industrial Technology Institute

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Industrial Technology Institute

Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Prasantha B.D.R.,University of Peradeniya | Prasantha B.D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Amunogoda P.N.R.J.,Industrial Technology Institute
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

The moisture adsorption isotherms of solar dehydrated mango and jackfruit were determined at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 50 °C. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of mango and jackfruit increased sharply as the temperature increased at water activity (a w) above 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. However, there were no clear isothermal intersection points observed at higher a w and temperatures. The EMC of solar dehydrated jackfruit showed the isothermal characteristics between types II and III. In contrast, dehydrated mango followed the characteristic type III adsorption isotherms due to high total soluble solids content of 67.8 °Brix and total sugars of 14.21 g/100 g fresh mango. Estimated parameters and fitting ability of three isotherm models were also evaluated. The Guggenheim-Anderson-Boer (GAB) model gave the best fit to the experimental EMC data. The GAB monolayer moisture contents (m o) of mango and jackfruit ranged from 11.1-10.0 % and 4.7-3.4 %, respectively. Specific surface area of active binding sites (S) was calculated based on the m o values. The S value of dehydrated mango was 2.5 to 2.8 times larger than jackfruit. The maximum net isosteric heat (q s) of sorption of solar dehydrated mango and jackfruit were determined as 19.5 and 33 kJ mol-1, respectively, and q s decreased significantly at high moisture. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Arawwawala L.D.A.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Thabrew M.I.,University of Kelaniya | Arambewela L.S.R.,Industrial Technology Institute
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to scientifically investigate whether Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn (Family: Cucurbitaceae) has gastroprotective activity. Materials and methods: All the experiments were conducted using Wistar strain rats (weight: 200-220. g). The food and water given to rats was withdrawn for 36 and 12. h respectively, before the commencement of the experiment. These rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8 rats/group; 4 males. +. 4 females) and groups 1-3 were orally administrated with hot water extract (HWE) at a dose of 375, 500 and 750. mg/kg, respectively. Group 4 was orally treated with equal volume of distilled water (1. mL; control), group 5 was orally treated with a reference drug, cimetidine (100. mg/kg) while the group 6 was orally treated with another reference drug, sucralfate (400. mg/kg). In the indomethacin experiment, only one dose of HWE (750. mg/kg) was tested, as this was found to have the maximum effect in the alcohol model also. Results: Results show that the HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina possesses significant (P≤0.05) and dose dependent gastroprotective effects in the alcohol model in terms of the length and number of gastric lesions mediated by alcohol, with a maximum effect at 750. mg/kg (inhibition of lesion length by 92%; number of gastric lesions by 88%). The same dose also mediated a significant (P≤0.05) gastroprotective activity in the indomethacine model (inhibition of lesion length by 88%; number of gastric lesions by 84%). In both models, the protective effect demonstrated by the HWE was comparable with that produced by cimetidine. The HWE significantly (P≤0.05) increased the amount of mucus produced by the rat gastro mucosa (by 39%) and reduced the gastric acidity (total acidity by 36%; free acidity by 40%). pH of the gastric juice increased from 4.1 to 6.0. However, no change in the volume of gastric juice was observed. Further, HWE showed potent antihistamine activity. Conclusion: It may be concluded that HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina exerts a significant protection against ethanol or indomethacin induced gastric damage. Increasing the protective mucus layer, decreasing the acidity of the gastric juice and antihistamine activity are probable mechanisms by which the HWE of Trichosanthes cucumerina mediates its gastroprotective actions. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Siriwardane A.S.,Industrial Technology Institute | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Samarasinghe K.,Industrial Technology Institute
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times. Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis (TLC) of withaferin A in both plant extracts were performed on pre-coated Silica gel 60 GF254 plates in hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol (2: 14: 1) mobile phase. Densitometer scanning was performed at λmax = 215 nm. HPLC of W. somnifera extracts was performed using Kromasil C18 reverse phase column. Both varieties of W. somnifera differed in withaferin A. After visualizing TLC plates with vanillin-sulphuric acid leaf and bark extracts of both varieties showed high intensity purple colour spots (Rf 0.14) than in stem and roots. The highest amount of withaferin A (3812 ppm) was observed in leaves of variety LC1 while the lowest amount was observed in roots of variety FR1 (5 ppm). According to the results it could be concluded that content of Witheferin A was vary leaf> bark> stem > roots in both varieties. Therefore, there is a high potential of incorporation of leaves and bark of W. somnifera for the preparation of Ayurveda drug leading to anticancer activity instead of roots. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Ranasinghe P.,University of Colombo | Pigera S.,University of Colombo | Premakumara G.A.S.,Industrial Technology Institute | Galappaththy P.,University of Colombo | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: " Cinnamomum zeylanicum", " Ceylon cinnamon", " True cinnamon" and " Sri Lankan cinnamon". To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results: The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions: The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public health implications. © 2013 Ranasinghe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Karstensen K.H.,Sintef | Mubarak A.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Gunadasa H.N.,Industrial Technology Institute | Wijagunasekara B.,Industrial Technology Institute | And 3 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sookwong P.,Tohoku University | Nakagawa K.,Tohoku University | Fujita I.,Tohoku University | Shoji N.,Industrial Technology Institute | Miyazawa T.,Tohoku University
Lipids | Year: 2011

It has been demonstrated in vivo that lipid glycation products such as Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine (Amadori-PE) accumulate in the plasma of diabetic humans and animals, but how lipid glycation products are formed under hyperglycemic conditions are not clear. We sought to clarify the occurrence of lipid glycation and its relationships with lipid peroxidation and protein glycation during the development of hyperglycemia using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. A significant increase in Amadori-PE was observed in STZ rats 7 days after STZ treatment, and Amadori-PE (especially 18:0-20:4 Amadori-PE) was found at high levels in the blood and in organs that are strongly affected by diabetes, such as the kidney. Significant changes in Amadori-PE appeared to occur prior to changes in levels of oxidized lipids, which increased after 21-28 days. In addition, accumulation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a protein glycation product, proceeded somewhat more slowly and moderately than that of Amadori-PE, suggesting that Amadori-PE and CML are early and advanced glycation products, respectively. Our results suggest that Amadori-PE may be a useful predictive marker for hyperglycemia, particularly in the early stages of diabetes. Similar speculations have been made from previous human studies, but this study provides a direct evidence to support the speculations in rat study. © 2011 AOCS.

Wijesinghe C.J.,Industrial Technology Institute | Wijeratnam R.S.W.,Industrial Technology Institute | Samarasekara J.K.R.R.,Industrial Technology Institute | Wijesundera R.L.C.,University of Colombo
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

A local isolate of Trichoderma asperellum was tested for its antagonistic activity against Thielaviopsis paradoxa (telemorph = Ceratocyctis paradoxa). The highest antagonistic activity was achieved when the concentration of T. asperellum conidia was 1 × 107 conidia/mL. The highest biomass and number of colony forming unit/mL of the T. asperellum peaked at 144 h after incubation in yeast waste residue medium. The minimum inhibition concentration value of the formulation was observed as 1% on growth of Th. paradoxa incubated at 28 ± 2 °C for 10 d. In the soil fungicide-screening test, the effect of concentrations 100-1600 μg/mL on mycelia growth was not significant (P < 0.05). Complete mycelial growth inhibition occurred at concentration above 52,600 μg/mL. Results of the fruit application tests clearly showed that all treated fruits were free of disease at the end of the incubation period. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity were observed between fruits treated with formulation of T. asperellum and the control formulation treated pineapples. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Abeysiri G.R.P.I.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Abeysinghe D.C.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Samarasinghe K.,Industrial Technology Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Acmella oleraceae Murr. (Asteraceae) is a natural source of bioactive secondary metabolites which are responsible for an array of therapeutic properties. Therapeutic effects are mainly due to the secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity present in different parts of the plant. Purpose of this work was to compare the physico-chemical, phytochemical, total phenol content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and cytotoxicity of different parts of A. oleraceae. Physico-chemical and phytochemical parameters were performed according to the methods described in WHO guidelines. The TAC and TPC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and modified Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method respectively. Presence of a prominent, bright light green color spot (Rf - 0.78) in TLC fingerprints was characteristic for flower extracts. The highest values for all the physico-chemical parameters, TAC and TPC were found in leaves while higher cytotoxocity was exhibited from flower extracts. Order of cytotoxicity was flower>leaf>stem. Presence of higher cytotoxicity in flower and leaf extracts scientifically validates the extensive use of flower and leaf in traditional systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Information generated are vital important for the quality control and standardization of A. oleracea in order to validate/upgrade the Sri Lankan pharmacopeia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Fernando I.D.N.S.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Abeysinghe D.C.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal herb used in Ayurvedic and traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of an array of ailments. Diverse therapeutic properties reported from W. somnifera are mainly due to the high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities present in different parts of the plant. Present study investigates the total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of different parts of three different growth stages of W. somnifera grown under three different spacing levels. The TAC and TPC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and modified Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method respectively. Leaf extract exhibited significantly higher (p<. 0.05) TAC and TPC values for all three different growth stages. However, the highest TAC and TPC of leaf extract for all three spacing levels were observed just after flowering stage. The highest total phenolic content was exhibited in leaf extracts followed by flower, fruits, stem and roots respectively. With regard to the anti oxidant content, the highest amount was recorded from leaf followed by pods, flowers, stem and roots respectively. Presence of higher TPC and TAC just after flowering stage scientifically validates traditional claims of harvesting of W. somnifera after flowering stage. The higher content of TPC and TAC in leaf demonstrated the possibility of incorporation leaf for the development of newer, effective drugs instead of roots. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kankanamalage T.N.M.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Dharmadasa R.M.,Industrial Technology Institute | Abeysinghe D.C.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka | Wijesekara R.G.S.,Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Sri Lanka has rich traditional systems of medicine, which cater to 60-70% of the rural population's primary health care needs. However, development of existing systems has been hindered by the unavailability of up-to-date information on medicinal materials and other related issues. For streamlining purposes, we investigated the present-day scenario of country's medicinal plant industry by gathering up-to-date information on the types of raw materials required, their aggregate quantities, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by stakeholders as well as other pertinent issues. Materials and methods The present survey covered the selected government Ayurveda hospitals, traditional and Ayurveda practitioners, large and small-scale herbal drug and cosmetic manufactures, importers, collectors and Ayurveda commissioners throughout the country. A systematic questionnaire was distributed and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Results A diverse range of medicinal materials, including 290 species (64.73%) from dried plants, 59 (13.17%) from fresh plants, 69 (15.40%) from minerals, 18 (4.02%) from animal sources and 12 (2.68%) from other sources were recorded. A total of 302 plant species belonging to 95 families, dominated by Leguminosae family, was listed. Out of these, 46 species belonging to 35 families were used intensively. A large portion of herbal materials was of completely local origin (71.13%) while 26% were imported and the rest (2.87%) can be obtained by both routes. Leaves were the most highly used part of the plant (22.2%). High price, poor quality, insufficient or totally absence of continuous supply and adulteration were the main constraints faced by the stakeholders. The unavailability of systematic cultivation and processing protocols, incorrect identification, and lack of proper quality control methodologies were identified as major challenges of the industry. Conclusion The present study revealed a currently bleak scenario of the medicinal material industry in Sri Lanka. The results clearly demonstrated the need to implement a national strategy to address the major challenges faced by different stakeholders. Information generated through this study could be effectively incorporated for the formulation of a sustainable development strategy for this industry. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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