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Pietretti D.,Wageningen University | Vera-Jimenez N.I.,Industrial Technology Group | Hoole D.,Keele University | Wiegertjes G.F.,Wageningen University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

β-Glucans are glucose polymers that are found in the cell walls of plants, bacteria, certain fungi, mushrooms and the cell wall of baker's yeast. In mammals, myeloid cells express several receptors capable of recognizing β-glucans, with the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 in conjunction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), considered key receptors for recognition of β-glucan. In our studies to determine the possible involvement of these receptors on carp macrophages a range of sources of β-glucans were utilized including particulate β-glucan preparations of baker's yeast such as zymosan, which is composed of insoluble β-glucan and mannan, and MacroGard®, a β-glucan-based feed ingredient for farmed animals including several fish species. Both preparations were confirmed TLR2 ligands by measuring activation of HEK293 cells transfected with human TLR2 and CD14, co-transfected with a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. In addition, dectin-1-specific ligands in mammals i.e. zymosan treated to deplete the TLR-stimulating properties and curdlan, were monitored for their effects on carp macrophages by measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals production, as well as cytokine gene expression by real-time PCR. Results clearly show the ability of carp macrophages to strongly react to particulate β-glucans with an increase in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals and an increase in cytokine gene expression, in particular il-1β, il-6 and il-11. We identified carp il-6, that was previously unknown. In addition, carp macrophages are less, but not unresponsive to selective dectin-1 agonists, suggesting recognition of β-glucans by multiple pattern recognition receptors that could include TLR but also non-TLR receptors. Candidate receptors for recognition of β-glucans are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Granstrand O.,Chalmers University of Technology | Holgersson M.,Industrial Technology Group
International Journal of Technology Management | Year: 2014

This paper gives various indications of market and technology diversification as well as of global market and technology convergence (rather than specialisation) in the context of management, legal and economic convergence. The results show that different countries focus on a wider but increasingly similar set of markets for R&D outputs in the form of patents, which implies increasing intra-national market diversification and inter-national market convergence. The results also show that different countries focus on a wider but (to some extent) increasingly similar set of technologies that are patented, which implies increasing intra-national technology diversification and inter-national technology convergence. In addition, intellectual property (IP) legal convergence takes place as newly industrialised countries (NICs) have strengthened their IP regimes in compliance with TRIPS and subsequently do so in the context of their indigenous innovation policies. Asian NICs have significantly increased their international patenting and supply of patented inventions. Altogether, this puts new demands across countries on multinational technology and innovation management skills, and in particular multinational IP management skills. © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Cualain D.O.,National University of Ireland | Hughes C.,Industrial Technology Group | Glavin M.,National University of Ireland | Jones E.,National University of Ireland
IET Intelligent Transport Systems | Year: 2012

The increasing trend towards the use of image sensors in transportation is driven both by legislation and consumer demands for higher safety and a better-driving experience. Awareness of the environment that surrounds a vehicle can make driving and manoeuvring of the vehicle much safer for all road users. The authors present an image processing method to detect lane departure in forward-facing video specifically designed to be in accordance with proposed automotive lane departure warning standards. Our system uses a novel lane-marking segmentation algorithm in accordance with national standards for lane markings. This method does not demand the high computational requirements of inverse perspective mapping unlike methods proposed in related research. The authors present a method for lane boundary modelling based on subtractive clustering and Kalman filtering in the Hough transform domain, which is within the constraints of automotive standards. Finally, using the cameras intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, the width of the vehicle and guidelines issued by the International Organisation for Standardisation, we show how lane departure can be identified. Results are presented that verify the systems high detection rate and robustness to various background interference, lighting conditions and road environments. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Source


Pazos L.,Industrial Technology Group
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

The design of a trauma implant represents a challenge for manufacturers and mechanical design criteria are necessary to avoid repeated experimental tests. Particularly, the design of intramedullary nails could be optimized on the basis of theoretical evaluation. The goal of the study was to theoretically predict the static performance of six cannulated stainless steel intramedullary nails and compare the predictions with experimental measurements. The predicted values for the bending structural stiffness and the yield moment were determined using formulas of mechanics of materials for bending beams. The experimental data supported the theoretical models for predicting the mechanical performance of intramedullary nails. Basic concepts were introduced to contribute for the understanding of mechanical design criteria of intramedullary nails. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Mohamed Y.A.-R.I.,University of Alberta | Radwan A.A.A.,University of Alberta | Lee T.K.,Industrial Technology Group
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

Reference-current-based active compensation techniques are widely used to actively damp the negative admittance effect associated with constant power loads in power electronic systems. These methods, however, yield strong coupling among the active compensator, speed, and current control dynamics when applied to motor drives. To overcome these difficulties, a new reference-voltage-based active compensator (RVC) is proposed to mitigate the negative admittance effect in permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives with tight-speed regulation. The proposed RVC suppresses the interaction dynamics between the compensator and motor drive dynamics in the low- and medium-frequency regions and maintains stability and effective damping performance along the whole loading trajectory of the motor drive. In addition, the proposed compensator has a very simple structure, and it can easily be augmented to existing motor drives with minimal interactions with existing drive control strategy and parameters. A theoretical comparative analysis and test results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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