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Negishi N.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Sano T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Hirakawa T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Koiwa F.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2012

Photocatalytic degradation of organophosphorus compounds including organophosphonic and organophosphinic acids by TiO2 immobilized silica gel in a water phase was carried out. Photocatalytic degradation of parent organophosphorus compounds and formation of intermediates were observed and the photocatalytic degradation scheme for each pesticide is proposed. Overall, the photocatalytic degradation of organophosphorus compounds in aqueous phase was estimated to form organophosphoric (organophosphonic and organophosphinic) acids as intermediates of the reaction. These organophosphoric acid intermediates were selectively adsorbed onto TiO2 surface and as a result, elution of these compounds into the aqueous phase was not observed. Similarly, after photocatalytic degradation, H3PO4 was either not observed or slightly observed as the final product. Likewise, rapid adsorption of the studied parent organophosphoric acids on TiO2 surface resulted in significant reduction in the concentration of these compounds even under dark condition. Upon UV irradiation, total organic carbon (TOC) level increased, and this is indicating the elution of some organic intermediates into the aqueous phase. However, these organic intermediates were eventually degraded with the UV irradiation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Chen Y.-L.,National Taiwan University | Yu S.-J.,National Taiwan University | Huang H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chang Y.-L.,National Taiwan University | And 7 more authors.
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2014

Candida tropicalis, a species closely related to Candida albicans, is an emerging fungal pathogen associated with high mortality rates of 40 to 70%. Like C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis, C. tropicalis is able to form germ tubes, pseudohyphae, and hyphae, but the genes involved in hyphal growth machinery and virulence remain unclear in C. tropicalis. Recently, echinocandinand azole-resistant C. tropicalis isolates have frequently been isolated from various patients around the world, making treatment difficult. However, studies of the C. tropicalis genes involved in drug tolerance are limited. Here, we investigated the roles of calcineurin and its potential target, Crz1, for core stress responses and pathogenesis in C. tropicalis. We demonstrate that calcineurin and Crz1 are required for hyphal growth, micafungin tolerance, and virulence in a murine systemic infection model, while calcineurin but not Crz1 is essential for tolerance of azoles, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and cell wall-perturbing agents, suggesting that calcineurin has both Crz1-dependent and -independent functions in C. tropicalis. In addition, we found that calcineurin and Crz1 have opposite roles in controlling calcium tolerance. Calcineurin serves as a negative regulator, while Crz1 plays a positive role for calcium tolerance in C. tropicalis. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Azanza M.P.V.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Azanza M.P.V.,Industrial Technology Development Institute | Gascon F.S.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Philippine Journal of Science | Year: 2015

Okara is the wet by-product of silken soybean curd (taho) processing and other soybean processing procedures. It has a short shelf life of 12 h under Philippine ambient temperature (30 °C). Without further processing, it is generally used as feed or thrown as waste due to rapid spoilage. A two-stage drying scheme which utilized a manually-operated vertical screw-type press and mechanical dryer was applied to wet okara obtained from a producer of silken tofu. The physicochemical, proximate, microbial, sensory, and rancidity parameters of dried okara were evaluated within its estimated shelf life. Drying of okara to about 5% moisture content extended its shelf life at 30 °C to almost 6 months when packed under vacuum in laminated PET/FOIL/PE (119 μm). End of shelf life was based on rancid odor through sensory evaluation. Shelf stable dried okara was described as yellowish cream, granular powder with slightly sweet, nutty, and moderately beany odor and taste. The proximate composition of freshly dried okara consisted of >20% protein, >10% fat, and >50% dietary fiber. The value added dried okara did not show any strong beany taste which normally limits the use of other dried soybean products as ingredient, thus, can be utilized as a functional ingredient in various food products. Dried okara can be incorporated into food products to increase their protein and dietary fiber content. © 2015, Science and Technology Information Institute. All rights reserved. Source


Paglicawan M.A.,Industrial Technology Development Institute | Paglicawan M.A.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim J.K.,Gyeongsang National University | Bang D.-S.,Kumoh National Institute of Technology
Polymer Composites | Year: 2010

An investigation was reported here with an aim to prepare nanocomposite thermoplastic elastomer gels by dissolving polystyrene-b poly(ethylene/butylene) -b-polystyrene (SEBS) triblock copolymer in selective hydrocarbon oils with the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The properties related to morphology, viscoelasticity, electrical and mechanical properties, and thermal stability were explored and discussed. Dynamic rheological measurements of the resultant nanocomposite thermoplastic elastomer gels (NCTPEGs) confirmed that addition of MWCNTs affects the linear viscoelastic properties in which dynamic storage and loss moduli increase to some extent. At a temperature between 30°C and 40°C below the gel point the NCTPEGs have dynamic storage modulus greater than loss modulus (G0 and G00), thereby indicating that at room temperature a physical network is still present despite the addition of MWCNTs. The morphological properties revealed that MWCNTs were dispersed and exfoliated within the swollen TPE. The incorporation of small quantity of MWCNTs improved the thermal stability and mechanical properties of NCTPEGs. POLYM. COMPOS., 31:210217, 2010. Copyright © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers. Source


Ongo E.,Industrial Technology Development Institute | Ongo E.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | Falasconi M.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | Sberveglieri G.,University of Santo Tomas of Philippines | And 5 more authors.
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

This study presents a practical and promising approach to profile the headspace aroma attributes of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Chemometric pattern method was applied to enhance the discrimination of civet coffee against its control coffee beans (not eaten by civet animal). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The result was supported by GCMS analysis. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffee differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents. Chemometric discrimination of E-nose and GCMS data demonstrated a clearly separated civet from their control coffees indicating that cultivar and geographic origins dictate the aroma and volatiles variations in coffee. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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