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Kachniarz M.,Warsaw University of Technology | Jackiewicz D.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

The following paper presents results of investigation of the magnetic properties of several ferromagnetic cores influenced by the magnetizing field of different frequencies with particular consideration of power losses. The description of investigated materials and developed measurement setup is included in the paper. Obtained results are presented and discussed. The conclusion about magnetizing frequency dependence of magnetic properties of investigated materials is formulated in the last section of the paper. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Ostapkowicz P.,University of Bialystok | Bratek A.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

This article presents leakage detection techniques in a liquid transmission pipeline. It is focused on leaks, which occur during changes of a pipeline’s operating conditions. Elaborated procedures aimed at leakage evaluation are presented. They are based on measuring of process variables such as flow and pressure. The presented solutions do not involve implementing of complex mathematical process dynamics models. The procedures are evaluated by carrying out experimental tests on a physical model of the pipeline. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Szalatkiewicz J.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2014

This paper presents results of research on the use of plasma technology for printed circuit boards (PCB) processing for metals and energy recovery. In the Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements, a test stand was built allowing experiments on plasma process with throughput of 800 kg per day. Brief examination of PCB waste was carried out, focusing on identification of its heating value and composition of organic substances including C, H, O, S, and Br. Heat balance of the process is presented, including energy supplied by plasma, chemical energy released by incineration of PCB waste, heat carried out with molten metal and slag, heat carried out with exhaust fumes, and heat losses of the apparatus. Also, the incineration process is described focusing on air demand and its efficiency due to incomplete burning of the organic substances in the reactor. The presented process in total consumes 66 kW of electrical energy, and allows recovery of 117 kW of heat energy from exhaust fumes.


Bedkowski J.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements | Bedkowski J.,Institute of Automation and Robotics
Automation in Construction | Year: 2013

This paper describes the methodology behind intelligent mobile assistant for spatial design support. The assistant gathers data and provides computational support for spatial assistance system on the basis of making intelligent spatial decisions. The main idea behind the assistant is to create a semantic model of the environment and performing preliminary spatial reasoning to provide cognitive feedback. The main goal is to support the designer in his task by perceiving and evaluating spatial design intent. Simultaneously the assistant allows for on-line modeling of real structured environment. It improves the conception-modeling-evaluation-remodeling cycle. This paper also contains an empirical evaluation of the proposed methodology. The results of the experiments performed using the prototype of Mobile Spatial Assistance System (MSAS) are shown. To conclude, the article presents the new methodology behind spatial support systems, which provides designers with cognitive assistance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Szewczyk R.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics and Intelligent Systems | Year: 2016

Recent development of SPICE, FEM and MoM software often requires the fast and reliable description of BH saturation magnetization curve. In spite of the fact that physical models of BH saturation curve are very sophisticated, for technical purposes, such curve may be modelled by simplified equations. Paper presents the quantitative assessment of the quality of four technical models of BH saturation magnetization curve performed for four modern magnetic materials: constructional corrosion resistant steel, Mn-Zn ferrite, amorphous alloy with perpendicular anisotropy as well as Finemet-type nanocrystalline magnetic material. Presented results confirm reliability of the model as well as indicate that high-speed calculation may be done using arctangent function. © 2016, Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements. All rights reserved.


Szewczyk R.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2015

Paper presents the results of application of extended Jiles-Atherton model for modeling of the magnetic hysteresis loops of anisotropic, grain oriented Unisil M130-27s silicon electrical steel. During the modeling both anisotropy of the magnetic material as well as changes of average energy required to break pinning site were considered. Moreover, equation determining anisotropic anhysteretic magnetization was corrected to be coherent with isotropic model. Parameters of the model were determined during the evolutional strategy-based optimization process simultaneously considering six hysteresis loops measured for different value of amplitude of magnetizing field as well as for magnetization in direction of the easy and hard axis of the magnetic material. Source code for this process is available at the web page. High level of agreement between experimental results and results of modeling was achieved and confirmed by the value of coefficient of determination. Simultaneous determination of Jiles- Atherton model parameters based on six hysteresis loops enables successful assessment of average anisotropy energy density during the optimization process. Moreover, set of nine Jiles-Atherton model’s parameters is suitable to model functional characteristics of the magnetic core made of silicon electrical steel necessary for numerical optimization of construction of electric and electronic devices. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015


In this paper we derive a set of novel formulas for computation of the Green's function and the coupled electro-elastic fields in a 2D piezoelectric strip with free boundaries and containing a distribution of straight line defects. The strip is assumed to be of unrestricted anisotropy, but allowing piezoelectricity, and in this sense situation is more general than in the available literature where only cubic symmetry was investigated. We employ a set of already known analytic formulas for the Fourier amplitude of the Green's function and the corresponding electro-elastic fields. The key novelty of this paper is solution for the divergence problem occurring during integration of the Fourier amplitude. This problem is caused by poles at k = 0 in various matrix components of the amplitude. From purely mathematical point of view such poles lead to quantities which do not tend to zero at infinity, and this situation is clearly unphysical. To resolve this issue it is demonstrated by means of rigorous analysis that when some additional physical conditions are imposed, physical fields exhibit regular behavior at infinity - the poles do not contribute. Nevertheless, they lead to irremovable numerical ∞ - ∞ uncertainties spreading over the whole domain of integration. This motivates us to compute exact formulas for all these poles to enable engineering calculations involving the system in question. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Szalatkiewicz J.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
Materials | Year: 2016

This paper presents the investigation of metals production form artificial ore, which consists of printed circuit board (PCB) waste, processed in plasmatron plasma reactor. A test setup was designed and built that enabled research of plasma processing of PCB waste of more than 700 kg/day scale. The designed plasma process is presented and discussed. The process in tests consumed 2 kWh/kg of processed waste. Investigation of the process products is presented with their elemental analyses of metals and slag. The average recovery of metals in presented experiments is 76%. Metals recovered include: Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, Sn, Pb, and others. The chosen process parameters are presented: energy consumption, throughput, process temperatures, and air consumption. Presented technology allows processing of variable and hard-to-process printed circuit board waste that can reach up to 100% of the input mass. © 2016 by the authors.


Analytic formulas for the Green's function and the coupled electro-elastic fields for a 2D piezoelectric strip with free boundaries and containing a distribution of straight line defects have already been found some years ago. These formulas exploit the well-known Stroh formalism and the Fourier approach, so the result is given as the Fourier integral and therefore its numerical implementation should pose no problem. However, in this note we show that for the case of cubic symmetry this form of the Green's function contains strong divergences, excluding possibilities of direct application of well-known numerical schemes. It is also shown that these divergences translate to divergences of the corresponding electro-elastic fields of a single defect. By means of a rigorous analysis it is demonstrated that imposing physical conditions implied by the nature of the problem all of these divergences cancel and the final, physical result exhibits expected, regular behavior at infinity. Unfortunately, although the nature of this problem is purely mathematical, it leads to irremovable numerical ∞ - ∞ uncertainties which tend to spread over the whole Fourier domain and severely impede engineering applications of the Green's function. This motivates us to compute the exact form of all divergent terms. These novel formulas will serve as a guide when establishing numerically stable algorithms for engineering computations involving the system in question. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Szalatkiewicz J.,Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2013

This paper presents an investigation of printed circuit boards (PCB) waste processing in plasmatron plasma reactor A test setup was designed and built allowing research over plasma processing of PCB waste in more than 700 kg/day scale The process in tests consumed 2 kWh/kg of processed waste An investigation of the products process, in form of metals and slag, is presented with their elemental analyses An average recovery of metals in presented experiments is 76%, and waste mass reduction, 45% The investigated mass balance of the process indicates partial metal oxidation in the plasma process It is estimated that metals oxidation is responsible for 2-10% of metals recovery reduction, and 10-20% of slag mass increase Briefly, the chosen process parameters are presented: energy consumption, throughput, process temperatures and air consumption Copyright © 2013 IFAC.

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