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Shabour H.M.,Nile Center for Technology Research | Daffalla M.M.,Karary University | Sharif O.A.R.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Proceedings - 2013 International Conference on Computer, Electrical and Electronics Engineering: 'Research Makes a Difference', ICCEEE 2013 | Year: 2013

Controller area network is a shared serial bus communication that is widely used in automotive and industrial networks. The CAN bus is considerably affected by the conducted electromagnetic interference, which is generated from many disturbances such as load dumb and ignition system noise. The EMI reduces the bus efficiency by introducing bit errors in the data frame. In this paper, the effect of the conducted EMI in automotives is comprehensively studied. Reed-Solomon encoding technique is proposed to combat the burst bit errors encountered in CAN. This solution is evaluated for different burst error lengths within the MATLAB environment, where the standard of 64-bit user message is used. Moreover, the influence of the position of the burst errors is explored. The obtained results showed considerable enhancement in the CAN bus performance when the RS code was integrated beside the automatic repeat request, which has been implemented within the CAN protocol. Implementing RS-20/CRC in the CAN bus system has corrected all the corrupted frames when burst errors occurred, specifically in the data block for burst lengths shorter than 11 bits. For the burst lengths greater than 11 bits, the RS-20/CRC scheme required up to 19% frame retransmissions. When implementing RS-40/CRC, all the frames were received correctly, i.e., 0% frame retransmissions were required by the CAN bus. © 2013 IEEE.

Ali M.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Halim M.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Addition of white sesame flour to wheat flour with different incorporation levels (5, 10.15%) in bread blend led to significant increase in nutritive value but with inferior quality with respect to crumb, crust color and bread volume. Proximate analysis of the wheat and white sesame flour were carried out. The rheological prosperities of the blends of wheat flour and white sesame flour were determined using a farinograph. To alleviate these inferior effects, natural improvers were used. Rheological test revealed, increase in water absorption value, dough development time and dough stability for all dough prepared from white sesamewheat flour blend in presence of the two types of improvers. Characteristics of bread prepared from white sesame-wheat flour blend using the two improvers, revealed better result as for crumb color, crust color, aroma, texture and taste as compared to control bread, with a noticeable increase in bread volume. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2013.

Abdullah S.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Osman M.M.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The cultural, physiological and biochemical of fifty two strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from twenty samples of Sudanese fermented milk (Rob), white cheese and raw milk were investigated. Three genera were found, Lactobacillus (69.23%), Lactococcus (19.23%) and pediococcus (11.53%). The dominate species were Lactobacillus xylosus (10 strains), Lactococcus lactic sub. cremoris (10) strain from raw cow milk. Lactobacillus delbrucckii (8 strains) from Rob and Pediococcus cereviasae (6 strains) from white cheese. Lactobacillus casei sp. Comprise 53.3% of cheese sample and 13.3% of raw milk sample (M2). Other isolates were, Lacobacillus fermentum from rob, Lactobacillus brevis from white cheese and unidentified Lactobacillus spp. from rob. This study suggests that dairy products in Sudan may be a rich source of lactic acid bacteria. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.

Razig K.A.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yousif A.M.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The utilization of groundnut milk in manufacturing the spread cheese in Sudan was investigated. Groundnut milk was prepared from grinded groundnut seeds. Four samples of spread cheese were prepared from groundnut milk with different levels of skim milk powder 0, 5, 10 and 15. The prepared spread cheese samples were stored for 6 months at 30±2°C. Analyses of chemical composition were carried on prepared spread cheese samples and the analyses were carried out at intervals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months during storage period. The chemical analyses of spread cheese samples at zero time processing were for total solids 35.79, 37.91, 39.59 and 41.49%, the protein content 12.82, 14.35, 15.98 and 17.56%, the fat content 14.98, 14.99, 14.99 and 15.0%, the ash content 4.16, 4.18, 4.21 and 4.23% for samples A, B, C and D respectively. The pH was affected by the levels of skim milk powder and storage period. The levels of skim milk powder significantly (p<0.05) affected the pH value of the spread cheese. Sample D (15% skim milk powder) recorded the lowest (5.14) and sample A (0% skim milk powder) the highest (5.60). Sample B (5% skim milk powder) and sample C (10% skim milk powder) were at an intermediate position (5.56 and 5.45), respectively. Storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the pH value of spread cheese the highest value (5.44) at the beginning of the storage period, while the lowest value (3.91) at the end of the storage period. The titratable acidity was affected by the levels of skim milk powder and storage period. The levels of skim milk powder significantly (p<0.05) affected the titratable acidity of the spread cheese. Sample D (15% skim milk powder) was the highest, while sample A (0% skim milk powder) was the lowest. Sample B (5% skim milk powder) and sample C (10% skim milk powder) occupy an intermediate position. Storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the titratable acidity of spread cheese. The highest titratable acidity (2.09%) obtained at the end of storage period and the lowest (0.64%) at the beginning of the storage period. The best score of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability obtained by sample B (5% skim milk powder), compared with others samples. Three months is found to be quite satisfactory to attain good quality spread cheese. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.

Elhassan I.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Elamin E.E.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Ayoub S.M.H.,Neelain University
Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Year: 2010

The essential oil from the dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard from Sudan was analyzed using combined GC-MS and 1HNMR. The main constituents identified in the oil were 4-terpineol (11.30%), β-pinene (6.12%), α-terpineol (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.42%), cis-α-copaene-8-ol (4.68%),13-epimanoyl oxide (4.62%), (+)-spathulenol (4.26%), L-pinocarveol (3.26%), myrtenol (2.94%), o-cymene (2.82%), eudesma- 1,3-dien-11-ol (2.35%), eudesma,4-11(13)-dien-2-ol (2.32%), cumic alcohol (2.29%), Kaur-16-ene (2.21%) and α-pinene (1.88%). Fifteen compounds were identified for the first time in X. aethiopica essential oil, among which thujol, 1,5-epoxysalvial,4(14)-ene, salvial-4(14)-en-1-one and 13-epimanool were the major compounds.

Mazahib A.M.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Nuha M.O.,General Administration for Planning Research and Scientific Centers | Salawa I.S.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Babiker E.E.,King Saud University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2013

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) seeds were subjected to soaking in distilled water for 14 hours. In order to perform complete processing, the seeds were cooked until soft. The effect of soaking and/or cooking of the seeds on chemical composition, total energy, antinutritional factors, protein digestibility, mineral contents and extractability and amino acid composition were studied. Most of the seeds nutrients were reduced during soaking and cooking but the total energy was increased. Tannin, polyphenols and phytic acid contents were reduced after soaking and cooking of the seeds with a concomitant increase in protein digestibility. Soaking alone and soaking followed by cooking reduced mineral contents of the seed, but HCl-extractability was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved to varying extents. Amino acid composition was slightly increased after soaking and cooking of the seeds. Soaking and/or cooking treatment was thus found to be an effective technique and caused further improvement in the availability of nutrients in bambara seeds. © 2008 IFRJ.

Abdelgadir A.,Donghua University | Abdelgadir A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Chen X.,Donghua University | Liu J.,Donghua University | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. © 2014 Awad Abdelgadir et al.

Musa E.M.M.T.,National University of Malaysia | Al-Shorgani N.K.N.,National University of Malaysia | Abuelhassan N.N.,National University of Malaysia | Doni F.,National University of Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The optimum conditions for cellulase activity measured as Filter paper activity (FPase) from sorghum straw by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The effect of incubation temperature, initial pH and moisture content on FPase activity was carried out in Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF). The results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the regression quadratic model was obtained. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model was significant (p<0.05) and that the effect of temperature and moisture content significantly effected on the FPase activity. The optimized conditions are; temperature 25°C, pH 4 and moisture content of 40%, while the predicted FPase activity is 0.35 U mL-1. The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and it was found that the FPase activity was 0.36 U mL-1 which indicate the validity of the model. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

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