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Shabour H.M.,Nile Center for Technology Research | Daffalla M.M.,Karary University | Sharif O.A.R.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Proceedings - 2013 International Conference on Computer, Electrical and Electronics Engineering: 'Research Makes a Difference', ICCEEE 2013 | Year: 2013

Controller area network is a shared serial bus communication that is widely used in automotive and industrial networks. The CAN bus is considerably affected by the conducted electromagnetic interference, which is generated from many disturbances such as load dumb and ignition system noise. The EMI reduces the bus efficiency by introducing bit errors in the data frame. In this paper, the effect of the conducted EMI in automotives is comprehensively studied. Reed-Solomon encoding technique is proposed to combat the burst bit errors encountered in CAN. This solution is evaluated for different burst error lengths within the MATLAB environment, where the standard of 64-bit user message is used. Moreover, the influence of the position of the burst errors is explored. The obtained results showed considerable enhancement in the CAN bus performance when the RS code was integrated beside the automatic repeat request, which has been implemented within the CAN protocol. Implementing RS-20/CRC in the CAN bus system has corrected all the corrupted frames when burst errors occurred, specifically in the data block for burst lengths shorter than 11 bits. For the burst lengths greater than 11 bits, the RS-20/CRC scheme required up to 19% frame retransmissions. When implementing RS-40/CRC, all the frames were received correctly, i.e., 0% frame retransmissions were required by the CAN bus. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Razig K.A.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yousif A.M.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The utilization of groundnut milk in manufacturing the spread cheese in Sudan was investigated. Groundnut milk was prepared from grinded groundnut seeds. Four samples of spread cheese were prepared from groundnut milk with different levels of skim milk powder 0, 5, 10 and 15. The prepared spread cheese samples were stored for 6 months at 30±2°C. Analyses of chemical composition were carried on prepared spread cheese samples and the analyses were carried out at intervals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months during storage period. The chemical analyses of spread cheese samples at zero time processing were for total solids 35.79, 37.91, 39.59 and 41.49%, the protein content 12.82, 14.35, 15.98 and 17.56%, the fat content 14.98, 14.99, 14.99 and 15.0%, the ash content 4.16, 4.18, 4.21 and 4.23% for samples A, B, C and D respectively. The pH was affected by the levels of skim milk powder and storage period. The levels of skim milk powder significantly (p<0.05) affected the pH value of the spread cheese. Sample D (15% skim milk powder) recorded the lowest (5.14) and sample A (0% skim milk powder) the highest (5.60). Sample B (5% skim milk powder) and sample C (10% skim milk powder) were at an intermediate position (5.56 and 5.45), respectively. Storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the pH value of spread cheese the highest value (5.44) at the beginning of the storage period, while the lowest value (3.91) at the end of the storage period. The titratable acidity was affected by the levels of skim milk powder and storage period. The levels of skim milk powder significantly (p<0.05) affected the titratable acidity of the spread cheese. Sample D (15% skim milk powder) was the highest, while sample A (0% skim milk powder) was the lowest. Sample B (5% skim milk powder) and sample C (10% skim milk powder) occupy an intermediate position. Storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the titratable acidity of spread cheese. The highest titratable acidity (2.09%) obtained at the end of storage period and the lowest (0.64%) at the beginning of the storage period. The best score of appearance, texture, flavour and overall acceptability obtained by sample B (5% skim milk powder), compared with others samples. Three months is found to be quite satisfactory to attain good quality spread cheese. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010. Source


Elhassan I.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Elamin E.E.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Ayoub S.M.H.,Neelain University
Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Year: 2010

The essential oil from the dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Richard from Sudan was analyzed using combined GC-MS and 1HNMR. The main constituents identified in the oil were 4-terpineol (11.30%), β-pinene (6.12%), α-terpineol (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.42%), cis-α-copaene-8-ol (4.68%),13-epimanoyl oxide (4.62%), (+)-spathulenol (4.26%), L-pinocarveol (3.26%), myrtenol (2.94%), o-cymene (2.82%), eudesma- 1,3-dien-11-ol (2.35%), eudesma,4-11(13)-dien-2-ol (2.32%), cumic alcohol (2.29%), Kaur-16-ene (2.21%) and α-pinene (1.88%). Fifteen compounds were identified for the first time in X. aethiopica essential oil, among which thujol, 1,5-epoxysalvial,4(14)-ene, salvial-4(14)-en-1-one and 13-epimanool were the major compounds. Source


Musa E.M.M.T.,National University of Malaysia | Al-Shorgani N.K.N.,National University of Malaysia | Abuelhassan N.N.,National University of Malaysia | Doni F.,National University of Malaysia | And 4 more authors.
Biotechnology | Year: 2015

The optimum conditions for cellulase activity measured as Filter paper activity (FPase) from sorghum straw by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The effect of incubation temperature, initial pH and moisture content on FPase activity was carried out in Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF). The results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the regression quadratic model was obtained. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model was significant (p<0.05) and that the effect of temperature and moisture content significantly effected on the FPase activity. The optimized conditions are; temperature 25°C, pH 4 and moisture content of 40%, while the predicted FPase activity is 0.35 U mL-1. The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and it was found that the FPase activity was 0.36 U mL-1 which indicate the validity of the model. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source


Abdullah S.A.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center | Osman M.M.,Industrial Research and Consultancy Center
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The cultural, physiological and biochemical of fifty two strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from twenty samples of Sudanese fermented milk (Rob), white cheese and raw milk were investigated. Three genera were found, Lactobacillus (69.23%), Lactococcus (19.23%) and pediococcus (11.53%). The dominate species were Lactobacillus xylosus (10 strains), Lactococcus lactic sub. cremoris (10) strain from raw cow milk. Lactobacillus delbrucckii (8 strains) from Rob and Pediococcus cereviasae (6 strains) from white cheese. Lactobacillus casei sp. Comprise 53.3% of cheese sample and 13.3% of raw milk sample (M2). Other isolates were, Lacobacillus fermentum from rob, Lactobacillus brevis from white cheese and unidentified Lactobacillus spp. from rob. This study suggests that dairy products in Sudan may be a rich source of lactic acid bacteria. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010. Source

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