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Aurora, IL, United States

Myers M.R.,Vanderbilt University | Jorge A.B.,Federal University of Itajuba | Mutton M.J.,Industrial Measurement Systems Inc. | Walker D.G.,Vanderbilt University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

State estimation procedures using the extended Kalman filter are investigated for a transient heat transfer problem in which a high heat flux point source is applied on one side of a thin plate and ultrasonic pulse time of flight is measured between spatially separated transducers on the opposite side of the plate. This work is an integral part of an effort to develop a system capable of locating the boundary layer transition region on a hypersonic vehicle aeroshell. Results from thermal conduction experiments involving one-way ultrasonic pulse time of flight measurements are presented. Uncertainties in the experiments and sensitivity to heating source location are discussed. One key finding is that sensitivity to heating source location is greater in the direction normal to the ultrasonic pulse propagation path. Scaled sensitivities to boundary conditions and thermal conductivity are presented and analyzed for all possible source locations using a square sensor grid. While sensitivity to the primary heat flux was determined to be the highest, sensitivity to the other parameters is either on the same order of magnitude or one order of magnitude less. Two different measurement models are compared for heating source localization: (1) directly using the one-way ultrasonic pulse time of flight as the measurement vector and (2) indirectly obtaining distance from the one-way ultrasonic pulse time of flight and then using these obtained distances as the measurement vector in the extended Kalman filter. Heating source localization results and convergence behavior are compared for the two measurement models. Two areas of sensitivity analyses are presented: (1) heat source location relative to sensor array position, and (2) sensor noise. The direct measurement model produced the best results when considering accuracy of converged solution, ability to converge to the correct solution given different initial guesses, and smoothness of convergence behavior. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2009

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project aims to enhance the automotive friction material manufacturing industry's productivity and efficiency by providing a superior measurement method for quality, consistency and the quantification of noise influencing material properties. Friction material manufacturing is subject to inter-material as well as inter-batch inconsistency that is not adequately quantifiable by existing methods. These inconsistencies adversely affect customer satisfaction, contribute to lost business and consume engineering and testing resources. An ultrasonic-based measurement method capable of measuring material property and consistency data has been employed in destructive laboratory testing with success. Modification of this method for use with intact, as-manufactured friction materials can provide manufacturers with the quality and consistency analysis tools that are currently severely lacking. In this program studies will be conducted to relate ultrasonic data to friction material processing variables and to forge a relationship between ultrasonic test data and noise performance. Ultrasonic measurement can be implemented as both, part of a control scheme to improve the manufacture of friction materials and as a quality assurance method to ensure that noise-prone components do not enter the marketplace. Both lead to increased customer satisfaction and significant gains in manufacturing efficiency. The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is improved manufacturing processes for automotive friction materials. The entire automotive industry can attest that brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) repairs often dominate warranty claims. More than $100 million is spent annually on brake noise, vibration warranty work in North America alone. In order to reduce such warranty and brake repair costs, more attention is being placed on optimizing NVH performance to eliminate brake squeals, groans and other related issues at the original equipment level. This is especially true considering new vehicle quality perceptions are often driven in part by brake performance and warranty repairs. Although test methods suitable for measuring and controlling friction levels are available, methods to screen parts for the purpose of eliminating NVH problems are inadequate, lacking sufficient specificity to allow definitive screening for the elimination of defective components. These methods are expensive, slow and difficult to implement. Better quality assurance test methods are needed, which market ultrasonic measurement methods are fully capable of exploiting. Ultrasonic methods fit a need in the auto industry that has not been filled, despite much time and effort being devoted to NVH over the past few decades.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2009

Innovative measurement methods and instruments are needed to advance the state-of-art of hypersonic flight. Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications. Recent studies have shown that in many hypersonic applications ultrasonic-based temperature and heat flux measurements offer distinct advantages over conventional methods. The transient temperature response is limited only by the velocity of sound and not the thermal mass of the sensor. Measurements can be made remotely, which prevents the disturbance of the measured quantity and removes the sensor from the harsh thermal environment. Measurements can be made without modifying the structure in any way e.g. drilling. In spite of these advantages, ultrasonic thermometry has not found widespread use. One reason for this limited use is the lack of low-cost, compact, dedicated, instrumentation which takes full advantage of the ultrasonic-based methods. In this proposal, we fill this gap by developing and demonstrating a multi-channel ultrasonic-based temperature and heat flux measurement capability. This innovation will be initially applied to boundary layer transition measurements in ground-based experiments, but will have the potential for application in a host of in-flight hypersonic experiments. BENEFIT: Ultrasonic thermometry offers unique capabilities to hypersonic vehicle development. Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications. The non-intrusive nature of the method is particularly attractive for hostile environment encountered in hypersonic flight. The immediate market for this technology is primarily in military applications where there is a need for improved thermal transfer measurement tools to drive the development and evaluation of hypersonic materials and components. In addition to the applications in hypersonic vehicle and propulsion systems, the ultrasonic temperature sensor technology has applications in the areas of space lift, space platform, combustion research, and missiles. There is also a potential commercial market in areas where thermal transport data is needed in relatively inaccessible regions such as combustion chambers, reactors and in some glass molding operations.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2009

The operating conditions of air-breathing propulsion engines demand designs that include cooling by the fuel and the use of lightweight materials that withstand extreme heat fluxes under oxidizing conditions.  Currently there are no means by which the fuel temperature can be non-invasively measured with the required temporal and spatial resolution.  It is important to monitor and maintain the maximum fuel temperature below critical levels in order to prevent coking.  For ground-based experiments, real-time fuel temperature measurements can be used to relax the safety constraints, thereby allowing for higher speed flow and longer length experiments. Furthermore, experience, information, and instrumentation developed as the result of ground-based experiments can form the basis for in-flight test capability.  Flight hardened test capability can be incorporated as part of a control strategy that would enhance overall combustor efficiency by balancing fuel flow rates with combustor wall temperature to yield most optimum operating conditions. In this program we apply the ultrasonic thermometry in 2 areas; 1) fuel temperature measurements in the manifold region and 2) fuel temperature in one of the combustor cooling passages.  As a by-product of the cooling passage measurement we will also measure heat flux and surface temperature on the material between the combustion inner chamber and the cooling channel.   BENEFIT: Ultrasonic thermometry offers unique capabilities to hypersonic vehicle development.  Improved thermal transport measurement methods speed development, improve understanding, and enhance our ability to validate analytical models and hardware for numerous propulsion and aeroshell applications.  The non-intrusive nature of the method is particularly attractive for hostile environment encountered in hypersonic flight.  The immediate market for this technology is primarily in military applications where there is a need for improved thermal transfer measurement tools to drive the development and evaluation of hypersonic materials and components.   In addition to the applications in hypersonic vehicle and propulsion systems, the ultrasonic temperature sensor technology has applications in the areas of space lift, space platform, combustion research, and missiles.  There is also a potential commercial market in areas where thermal transport data is needed in relatively inaccessible regions such as combustion chambers, reactors and in some glass molding operations


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2012

In this Phase I program, we develop and validate an acoustic concept that is capable of measuring interior temperatures in complex munitions propellants. The measurement technique is based on ultrasonic thermometry methods. Using sensors located on the exterior surface, the variation in propagation time is used to estimate the internal temperature. No modification of the component is required. In laboratory studies we address the issues of echo identification, optimal operating frequency, coupling, calibration, and repeatability. A series of laboratory studies validate the concept and demonstrate the potential for implementation for real-time monitoring of internal temperature. Successful demonstration of the concept and measurement methods in the Phase I program will provide the basis for full-scale prototype systems to be completed in Phase II

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