Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering

Poznań, Poland

Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering

Poznań, Poland
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Piosik A.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Zurowski K.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Pietralik Z.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Hedzelek W.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Kozak M.,Adam Mickiewicz University
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2017

Zirconium dioxide has been widely used in dental prosthetics. However, the improper mechanical treatment can induce changes in the microstructure of zirconium dioxide. From the viewpoint of mechanical properties and performance, the phase transitions of ZrO2 from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase induced by mechanical processing, are particularly undesirable. In this study, the phase transitions of yttrium stabilized zirconium dioxide (Y-TZP) induced by mechanical treatment are investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and powder diffraction (XRD). Mechanical stress was induced by different types of drills used presently in dentistry. At the same time the surface temperature was monitored during milling using a thermal imaging camera. Diffraction analysis allowed determination of the effect of temperature and mechanical processing on the scale of induced changes. The observed phase transition to the monoclinic phase was correlated with the methods of mechanical processing. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Siedlecki M.,Poznan University of Technology | Lijewski P.,Poznan University of Technology | Weymann S.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
MATEC Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

Merkisz J.,Poznan University of Technology | Lijewski P.,Poznan University of Technology | Fuc P.,Poznan University of Technology | Weymann S.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc | Year: 2013

The paper discusses the issue of exhaust emissions from non-road vehicle engines. In the first part of the paper American regulations on the procedures of engine testing in operation were briefly characterized. The said regulations are a novel solution and were introduced as one of the first of this type worldwide. In the next part of the paper the authors presented the results of the exhaust emission tests from a farm tractor performed under actual operating conditions during fieldwork. For this purpose PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System) was used. The tests were carried out for different test procedures such as the NTE (Not- To-Exceed) procedure. The analysis of the test results was performed chiefly in the aspect of the NTE test applicable in the U.S. The analysis pertains chiefly to the engine operating conditions and exhaust emissions. European legislation currently does not require such tests and that is why the presented tests are related to the American procedures. The performed tests and their analysis led to a formulation of conclusions related to the engine operating conditions and its exhaust emissions.

Bartkowski D.,Poznan University of Technology | Mlynarczak A.,Poznan University of Technology | Piasecki A.,Poznan University of Technology | Dudziak B.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Optics and Laser Technology | Year: 2015

The paper presents the method of preparation and study results of metal matrix composite coatings (MMC coating) in the system of Stellite-6 and tungsten carbides. Changes in microstructure, corrosion resistance, microhardness, phase and chemical composition as well as surface conditions were investigated. Stellite-6/WC MMC coatings were prepared by laser cladding technology using a 1 kW continuous wave Yb:YAG disk laser with a powder feeding system. Two different powder mixtures containing 30% and 60% of WC and three different values of laser beam power were used. It was found that increasing WC values caused an increase in microhardness on the cross-section of the produced coating in comparison to the substrate. Depending on the laser beam power, the coatings produced with 30% WC achieved microhardness in the range from about 350 HV0.05 (700 W) to about 680 HV0.05 (550 W). Twice as large amount of WC particles in the powder mixture resulted in increase of microhardness from about 700 HV0.05 (700 W) to about 1500 HV0.05 (550 W). In the coating M7C3, M6C and M23C6 carbides were identified by an X-ray diffraction method. Special attention was given to bondings between carbide particles and metal matrix, which had a characteristic microstructure. A reduction of corrosion resistance with increasing WC content in coating was also discovered. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Warsaw University of Technology, Lublin University of Life Sciences and Lublin University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM | Year: 2016

Many people are exposed to vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives. The biodynamic responses of the human body in sitting conditions have been widely measured under whole-body vibration (WBV). The measures are most often expressed in terms of force-motion relations at the driving-point, namely, mechanical impedance, apparent mass and absorbed power, and flow of vibration through the body, such as seat-to-head and body segments vibration transmissibility. The absorbed power is a measure of the energy absorbed by the subject due to the external forces applied to the system.The body behaves like a vibrating physical system with distributed energy-storage elements (masses, springs) and energy-dissipation elements (dampers). The total quantity of power can be divided into 2 components - one real and one imaginary. The real component reflects the energy-absorbing part of the system, due to the transformation of friction into heat within the tissues. The imaginary component reflects the energy-storing part of the system which does not consume any vibration energy.The seated human is modeled as a series 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operators body segments has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.4 - 2.75 ms(-1).The concept of absorbed power as a measurement for evaluation of WBV exposure opens a new area for research. The important character of absorbed power is that it has physical significance and therefore can be measured as well as computed analytically. The absorbed power relates to dissipation of energy attributed to relative motions of the visco-elastic tissues, muscles and skeletal system, which under prolonged exposures could lead to physical damage in the musculoskeletal system. A structural model of the human operator allows determination of the dynamic characteristics of the model, and study of the energy flow between the elements of the model.

Szczepaniak J.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Frackowiak P.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Adamczyk F.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

In research of Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Poznan briquetting by the method of the curling to the compaction cereal straw was used. Briquettes from agricultural straw produced by this method are allocated as agricultural biomass combustion for so called small energy. A single briquette is a cylinder of diameter of 85 mm, length of 250-300 mm which are characterized by a high density around 500 kg·m-3. Attempts were made to burn them in two different traditional central heating boilers: Eko Duo 25 with power of 25 kW, STK 22 with power of 22 kW and the one prototype of the rotary grate boiler with power of 25 kW 20 kW produced by PROTECH Sp. z o. o. from Gierałtowice. In research briquettes made from rye straw were used. The study was carried out by observing the combustion process of certain portions of briquettes while making measurements of water temperature at the entrance and exit of the boiler, temperature and gas composition. The study has showed that the total fuel briquettes made from agricultural material excess of air is required and there is a need for frequent, periodic movement of briquettes burning on the boiler grate. Results of gas quality tests have showed that the levels of pollutants do not exceed the legally authorized levels. Results obtained from the combustion of straw briquettes boiler power also do not exceed the values permitted by law. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Ptaszek P.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Kabzinski M.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Ptaszek A.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Kaczmarczyk K.,Agricultural University of Krakow | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2016

This research study analysed the rheological properties of fresh food foams based on egg white protein, and with the addition of apple pectins and xan than gum. The rheological analysis was carried out using the large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) technique. From the obtained results two types of Lissajous figures were constructed, describing the elastic and viscous properties. The obtained figures were subjected to geometrical decomposition, which resulted in the determination of the stress values characteristic of nonlinear purely elastic and purely viscous properties. The Fast Chebyshevs Transform allowed for the calculation of the Chebyshev coefficients, and further detailed analysis of rheological behaviour of foams as a function of strain amplitude. The determination of the values of elastic and viscous Chebyshev coefficients allowed for the interpretation, with high resolution, of nonlinear rheological properties of the obtained foams. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Szczepaniak J.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Tanas W.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Kromulski J.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activitiesimpaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum.The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 4.16 ms-1.

Kazmierczak H.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Pawlowski T.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Zembrowski K.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2015

An idea is presented for a method to lower excessive dynamic loads in the system of supporting structure, mechanical-hydraulic forcing system, vibration isolation system, protective unit. The dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by the method of dynamic susceptibility. An analytical model of the system was built (mobile machine to carry out protective treatments; project WDN-POIG.01.03.01-00-164/09).

Klembalska A.,Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Management and Production Engineering Review | Year: 2015

Safety of agricultural machinery is a key aspect in carrying out agrotechnical treatments. Appropriate testing of machines and equipment guarantees better protection of life or health. Applicable conformity assessment procedures do not require (except for particularly dangerous machines) participation of the third party - a professional, specialized, accredited, notified testing laboratory what raises a common fear of the dangers arising from ignorance of manufacturers.

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