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Event to feature the key elements of an ergonomics improvement process to align with ISO 45001 -- The National Ergonomics Conference & ErgoExpo, the nation's largest, longest-running ergonomics conference and tradeshow, announced today Walt Rostysus, CPE, CSP, CIH, Principal Consultant and Ergonomics Engineer at Humantech, will be presenting the session,, on Wednesday, August 23 during the four-dayevent at the Paris Las Vegas Hotel.The new ISO 45001 safety management system, an international standard that all involved in occupational safety and health (OH&S), will enable organizations to proactively improve its OH&S performance in preventing injury and ill-health. The implementation of this system will be a strategic decision for an organization that can be used to support its sustainability initiatives, ensuring people are safer and healthier, as well as increase profitability at the same time.Mr. Rostykus will present real industry applications and examples to show how the key elements of an ergonomics improvement process align with ISO 45001. Conference attendees will hear the dos and don'ts already learned by other organizations leading the way in the industry, along with identifying techniques and tips for effective implementation.In addition to the session,, this year's® will also feature five groundbreaking program tracks including, Program Management; Office Ergonomics; Industrial Economics & Safety; Materials Handling, Tools & Workstation Design; and Health Care Ergonomics, Aging & Wellness. The nation's largest ergo expo hall will also include new products and the potential to meet new vendors, plus hear from notable keynote speakers such as Dr. L. Casey Chosewood, Director of Office for Total Worker Health® and more!Registration is currently open for. For additional details and to register, visit www.ErgoExpo.com or call toll-free at 1-800-727-1227.For media inquiries, please contact Rennette Fortune at 561-622-6520 or rfortune@lrp.com , produced by LRP Conferences, LLC is the most important annual event for ergonomics professionals. Ergonomists as well as health, safety, productivity and risk management professionals attend each year in search of innovative ways to increase productivity and profitability while improving workplace health and safety. For more information, visit http://www.ErgoExpo.com or call 1-800-287-0257.is a producer of nearly a dozen professional conferences and trade shows including National Ergonomics Conference and ErgoExpo, HR Technology Conference & Exposition®, HR in Hospitality Conference & Expo, and the National Workers' Compensation and Disability Conference & Expo. For more details, visit www.lrp.com.


BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- It's often said that airline mergers lead to more headaches for travelers, including more flight delays, late arrivals and missed connections. But an analysis of 15 years of U.S. Department of Transportation statistics found that airline consolidation has had little negative impact on on-time performance. In fact, two Indiana University researchers found evidence that mergers lead to long-term improvements, likely due to improved efficiencies. The research is forthcoming in the Journal of Industrial Economics. The authors of the study are Jeffrey T. Prince, chair and professor of business economics and the Harold A. Poling Chair of Strategic Management in the IU Kelley School of Business; and Daniel H. Simon, associate professor in the IU School of Public and Environmental Affairs. Their paper is among the first to look at quality responses to airline mergers and is one of just a few papers that analyze quality responses to mergers of any kind. Prior research has mainly focused on the price effects of mergers. "While we find some limited evidence of on-time performance worsening in the two years immediately following a merger, we find no evidence of on-time performance worsening in the long run," Prince and Simon wrote. "In many cases, we find evidence that on-time performance improves in the long run, and suggestive evidence that it is most pronounced on routes where both merging airlines operated pre-merger." The IU professors analyzed on-time performance for five major airline mergers since 2000, including American Airlines' acquisition of Trans World Airlines in 2001; America West's acquisition of U.S. Airways in 2005; Delta Airlines' merger with Northwest Airlines in 2008; United Airlines' merger with Continental Airlines in 2010; and Southwest Airlines' acquisition of Airtran Airways in 2011. Prince and Simon used three years of data prior to each merger and then up to five years of data afterward. To create a control group, they looked at on-time performance for the merging carriers' rivals, which enabled them to better identify the impact of mergers on airline service quality. Due to the immense size of their dataset, they focused on activity on the 10th, the 15th and 20th of each month. "While travel time is little changed in the first two years following a merger, it falls by about one to two minutes (1 percent) in the following three to five years," they wrote. "None of the results provide any evidence for the conventional wisdom that mergers worsen on-time performance. "Further analysis reveals that we find the biggest improvement in on-time performance in the long-run, post-merger period on some of the routes where we would expect merger effects to be most pronounced -- routes that both carriers served prior to merging," they said. "These routes offer the greatest opportunities for efficiencies, including consolidation of operations on the ground and in the air, and the internalization of congestion externalities." Their study found no evidence that rival air carriers' on-time performance was negatively affected by the presence of an airline that had recently merged, while providing some tentative evidence that improvements in efficiency at merged airlines may also be largely matched by competitors on routes that the merging carriers previously served. While the primary focus of the research was mergers and on-time performance, the researchers also looked at other measures of quality, such as flight cancellations, baggage handling and customer complaints. They found: Critics and regulators have questioned whether consolidating operations affect service and whether the merged airline exploits its market power by reducing its investments in quality. "In this case, however, the larger combined pool of resources may provide flexibility that enhances service quality," Prince and Simon said. "More available ground crews and gate agents, more landing spots and larger numbers of planes at an airport can provide increased flexibility to readjust resources in response to delays and equipment failures. "Overall, our findings suggest that airline mergers do not harm, and may ultimately benefit, consumers via enhanced service quality in the form of on-time performance, particularly a few years after the merger," they added. "Of course, a full welfare assessment must consider price changes as well as changes in all other quality dimensions, but for at least those quality dimensions we examine in our analysis, there does not appear to be any evidence of any notable worsening." The professors used DOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics flight-level data on 26 U.S. carriers' on-time performance from 1998 to 2013. They limited their same to 3,917 non-stop routes. Nine of the ten carriers that merged made up the largest carriers in their sample.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Analysis Group, one of the largest private economics consulting firms, announces the promotion of 41 consultants and welcomes seven new affiliates to the firm. “ We are pleased to recognize the outstanding efforts of our consultants, as well as the addition of such impressive new affiliates, all of whom are recognized leaders in their respective fields,” said CEO and Chairman Martha S. Samuelson. Shannon W. Anderson, a professor of management at the UC Davis Graduate School of Management, conducts research on the design of cost accounting systems and on how firms use management control practices to mitigate risk and facilitate collaboration in inter-firm transactions. This research includes performance measurement, incentive contracting, supply chain contracting, and operations management. Professor Anderson uses empirical analysis of firm-level accounting and operational data to test economic theories about firm performance. She also has experience designing and administering surveys and analyzing survey data. Her published work has employed data from many industries, including automotive, electronics manufacturing, office furniture manufacturing, commercial airlines, consumer retail, coal extraction, transportation, and warehousing and distribution. Professor Anderson coauthored the award-winning book Implementing Management Innovations and the textbook Fundamentals of Cost Accounting (now in its 5th edition). Her research has been published in leading research journals, including The Accounting Review, Management Science, and Contemporary Accounting Research, and has been funded by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Institute of Internal Auditors, and the National Science Foundation, among others. Jacques Crémer, research faculty at the Toulouse School of Economics, is an expert in industrial organization with a focus on competition, contracting, auction and planning theory, and the economics of organization. His recent research examines these issues with applications to the economics of two-sided platforms, industries with network effects, and the Internet. Professor Crémer has testified before the European Commission in relation to the AOL-Time Warner merger, and consulted to clients including Microsoft, Google, Sucre Saint Louis, Intel, GTE, and Time Warner. He has published on such topics as the consequences of mergers on competition and policy, the costs and benefits of vertical integration, and the value of switching costs. Professor Crémer’s work has appeared in peer-reviewed journals such as American Economic Review and The Quarterly Journal of Economics. He is a Fellow of the European Economic Association and the Econometric Society. From 2011 to 2014, Professor Crémer was the Scientific Director at the Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), and was previously Director of Institut d’Economie Industrielle (IDEI), a TSE research institute focused on partnerships with government and industry. Randal S. Milch, a Distinguished Fellow at the New York University School of Law's Center on Law and Security, has extensive expertise in corporate governance, cybersecurity, and data privacy issues. Over his 21 years at Verizon Communications Inc. (where he was EVP and General Counsel to the Chair and CEO), Mr. Milch was deeply involved in the deregulation and transformation of the telecommunications industry. He oversaw the public policy, legal, regulatory, government affairs, and security groups at Verizon, testified before committees of Congress, and organized and led significant public policy campaigns relating to state and federal legislation and transactional approvals. He also managed national security matters, set cyber-policy, and served as the senior cleared executive. Mr. Milch is currently chair of the Board of Equal Justice Works and serves as a trustee of New York University School of Law. He is a former partner in the Washington, D.C. office of Donovan, Leisure, Newton & Irvine. Michael D. Mitzenmacher, the Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Professor of Computer Science at Harvard University’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, researches the design and analysis of algorithms, networks and data transmission, computer security, information theory, and use of encryption. He has consulted to numerous technology companies and research laboratories, including Adverplex (Cogolabs), Akamai, AT&T, Digital Fountain, eHarmony, Fluent Mobile (Fiksu), Google, Huawei, ITA Software, JobSync, Microsoft, Mitsubishi Research Laboratories, and Yahoo. In addition, he has served as an expert witness on software and intellectual property issues in several cases, including testimony in multiple trials. Professor Mitzenmacher has authored or coauthored over 200 conference and journal publications on various topics, including algorithms for the Internet; efficient hash-based data structures; erasure; and error-correcting codes, power laws, and compression. His work on low-density parity-check codes shared the 2002 IEEE Information Theory Society Best Paper Award and won the 2009 ACM SIGCOMM Test of Time Award. Prior to joining Harvard, he worked as a research scientist at Digital Systems Research Center on information retrieval on the Web, erasure codes, error-correcting codes, on-line algorithms, and load balancing. Nathan Novemsky, a professor of marketing in the Yale School of Management and a professor of psychology at Yale University, is an expert in the psychology of judgment and decision-making, an area that overlaps heavily with behavioral economics and consumer behavior. His area of specialization is examining how consumers are affected by information in their environments, including how particular types of information impact their choices and judgments. He is a member of the Yale Center for Customer Insights, and has consulted on numerous legal cases (e.g., deceptive advertising, defamation) related to how individuals interpret information they see in the media and other contexts. Professor Novemsky has published widely on the topics of judgment and decision-making, and regularly teaches these concepts to executives around the world. Paul Oyer, the Fred H. Merrill Professor of Economics at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, is an expert in the economics of organizations and human resource practices. In the field of personnel economics, he has undertaken several studies on how organizations pay and provide incentives for their workers. He has also examined how salespeople and executives react to incentive systems, and why some firms use broad-based stock option programs. In addition, he has conducted research on how firms have adjusted their human resource practices in response to legal barriers for dismissing workers. His current research focuses on how companies identify and recruit workers in highly-skilled and competitive labor markets. His research has been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including The Quarterly Journal of Economics, American Economic Review, and The Journal of Finance. Professor Oyer is a research associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Labor Economics. Prior to joining Stanford, he was on the faculty of the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He also previously worked for Booz, Allen & Hamilton; 3Com Corporation; and ASK Computer Systems. John E. Ware, the Professor and Chief of Outcomes Measurement Science in the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, is an internationally recognized leader in measuring Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO). His substantial contributions to the outcomes research field have focused on developing, standardizing, and applying health metrics to assess patient reported outcomes. His work has led to the development of a set of standardized, generic PRO measures, including the SF-36® Health Survey, as well as disease-specific measures such as the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6™) survey. Professor Ware frequently provides guidance on evidence support for PRO labeling, and he has been the invited expert for testimony on PRO topics at hearings held by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. His current research interests also include applying modern psychometric methods to construct more actionable measures, including the first disease-specific quality-of-life (QOL) impact scale standardized across conditions and normed in representative chronically-ill populations. Professor Ware is a member of the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine). The firm promoted one consultant to managing principal. Richard A. Mortimer specializes in health economics, industrial organization, microeconomic theory, and econometrics. He has provided economic analyses in numerous antitrust matters involving questions of market power, pricing, and market exclusion and foreclosure in a variety of industries, with a focus on healthcare. He has also provided analyses and expert testimony on behalf of clients in the healthcare industry on litigation and government investigations involving allegations of improper promotion and kickback payments. Dr. Mortimer's experience includes leading analyses of large data sets to assess questions of market definition, class certification, liability, and damages. In addition to work in litigation, Dr. Mortimer has undertaken research in the area of health care policy, and he has authored several public policy studies related to pharmaceutical and general health care legislation. His research has been published in leading peer-reviewed journals, including Health Affairs, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, The Journal of Industrial Economics, and Journal of Medical Economics. In Boston, Ryan Booth specializes in applying microeconomic theory, antitrust economics, and econometric methods to a range of issues that include assessing the competitive effects of firm conduct, the implications of mergers and acquisitions on consumer welfare, and the effects of government policy on consumer and firm behavior. Emily Cotton has extensive experience conducting complex quantitative and qualitative analyses of data in both mergers and litigation matters, including antitrust, bankruptcy, class certification, intellectual property, securities, survey design, tax, and transfer-pricing matters. Chris Feige specializes in the areas of finance, securities, and financial systems. He has developed complex valuation models, including discounted cash flow models, and has analyzed asset-backed securities and credit ratings in support of expert testimony in a number of bankruptcy and damages matters. Lauren Hunt specializes in providing analyses in finance cases involving complex securities, including mortgage-backed securities (MBS). She has supported experts in numerous litigations involving class action claims, allegations of violations of Sections 10b-5 and 11, and damages claims relating to the underwriting of mortgage loans. Kenneth Weinstein specializes in the application of quantitative methods to real-world problems involving decision-making, strategy, risk management, and litigation. He has managed the analysis of large transaction-level and claims databases, helped clients mitigate the risks associated with distributing controlled substances, and developed flexible damages models for negotiating high-stakes settlements. Hongbo Yang, a specialist in health economics and outcomes research, has directed and conducted numerous studies in a variety of therapeutic areas, including autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, blood disorders, oncology, women's health, and central nervous system diseases. She has led the submission of economic models to multiple health technology assessment agencies (HTAs), including NICE, CADTH, INESSS, and OHTAC. In Denver, Carletta Wong has a decade of experience applying economic consulting expertise to a variety of litigation matters involving securities, accounting, antitrust, corporate governance, off-label pharmaceutical marketing, and intellectual property and trade secrets. In Los Angeles, Keith Betts specializes in the application of advanced biostatistics techniques in the field of health economics and outcomes research. He has broad experience developing research strategies in a range of disease areas, including immunology, hematology, oncology, psychiatry, and virology. In Menlo Park, Anjali D. Oza specializes in the application of economic, statistical, and market research methods to litigation and strategy matters. She is an expert in designing and evaluating qualitative and quantitative surveys, including conjoint analysis and experiments. In Montréal, François Laliberté applies his distinctive competencies in biostatistics and economics to the field of health outcomes research. He has investigated different facets of health research including safety, cost of illness, resource utilization, adherence to therapies, cost-effectiveness, and treatment outcomes. Markus von Wartburg specializes in the application of econometric methods and microeconomic theory to complex problems in antitrust and competition, commercial litigation, media and telecommunications, finance, and intellectual property. In New York City, Duncan Fung specializes in commercial litigation matters involving securities, finance, valuation, corporate governance, and statistics. He has supported clients on consulting engagements involving structured finance products, hedge funds, market microstructure, employee stock options, equity financing trades, and liquidity in money markets. Stephanie Lee’s litigation and advisory experience includes analyses of municipal bonds and interest rate swaps, auction-rate securities, student loan asset-backed securities, residential mortgage-backed securities, hedge funds, and mutual funds. She has provided testimony to Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) arbitration panels. In Washington, D.C., F. Michael Nolan has extensive experience applying microeconomic, financial, and accounting principles to complex business litigation matters involving automobiles, agricultural products, high-technology products, telecommunications, consumer electronics, medical equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Federico Temerlin specializes in the application of economics, finance, and statistical theory to the analysis of complex legal and business disputes. He has evaluated issues related to misrepresentation of information, damages modeling, business and asset valuation, complex financial structures, tax shelters, and corporate restructurings. The firm promoted 25 consultants to manager or senior economist. In Beijing: Simeng Han. In Boston: Anya Blank, Konstantin A. Danilov, Katie Franklin, Olga Korolev, Elizabeth Milsark, Jeremy Smith, Yan Song, Todor Stoyanov, David Toniatti, and Kristof Zetenyi. In Chicago: Mark Berberian and David Smith. In Dallas: Jeffrey Hulbert. In Denver: Stacey Chan. In Los Angeles: Maral DerSarkissian, Anne LaRue, Jinlin Song, Nathan Trujillo, and Joel Wiles. In Menlo Park: Daniel Deisenroth and Ruoding Tan. In Montréal: Dominic Pilon. In San Francisco: Tracy Danner. In Washington, D.C.: Anna Gumen. Analysis Group is one of the largest private economics consulting firms, with more than 700 professionals across 11 offices in the United States, Canada, and China. Since 1981, we have provided expertise in economics, finance, health care analytics, and strategy to top law firms, Fortune 500 companies, and government agencies worldwide. Our internal experts, together with our network of affiliated experts from academia, industry, and government, offer our clients exceptional depth of expertise.


News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Airline mergers often take the blame for flight delays, late arrivals, and missed connections. A new analysis of 15 years of US Department of Transportation statistics, however, shows that airline consolidation has had little negative impact on on-time performance. In fact, the study offers evidence that mergers lead to long-term improvements, likely due to improved efficiency. The paper, which will appear in the Journal of Industrial Economics, is among the first to look at quality responses to airline mergers and is one of just a few papers that analyze quality responses to mergers of any kind. Prior research has mainly focused on the price effects of mergers. “While we find some limited evidence of on-time performance worsening in the two years immediately following a merger, we find no evidence of on-time performance worsening in the long run,” write Jeffrey T. Prince, professor of business economics at Indiana University’s Kelley School of Business, and Daniel Simon, associate professor at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs. “In many cases, we find evidence that on-time performance improves in the long run, and suggestive evidence that it is most pronounced on routes where both merging airlines operated pre-merger.” For the study, the authors analyzed on-time performance for five major airline mergers since 2000, including American Airlines’ acquisition of Trans World Airlines in 2001; America West’s acquisition of US Airways in 2005; Delta Airlines’ merger with Northwest Airlines in 2008; United Airlines’ merger with Continental Airlines in 2010; and Southwest Airlines’ acquisition of Airtran Airways in 2011. The researchers used three years of data prior to each merger and then up to five years of data afterward. To create a control group, they looked at on-time performance for the merging carriers’ rivals, which allowed them to better identify the impact of mergers on airline service quality. Due to the immense size of their dataset, they focused on activity on the 10th, 15th, and 20th of each month. “While travel time is little changed in the first two years following a merger, it falls by about one to two minutes (1 percent) in the following three to five years,” they write. “None of the results provide any evidence for the conventional wisdom that mergers worsen on-time performance. “Further analysis reveals that we find the biggest improvement in on-time performance in the long-run, post-merger period on some of the routes where we would expect merger effects to be most pronounced—routes that both carriers served prior to merging,” they write. “These routes offer the greatest opportunities for efficiencies, including consolidation of operations on the ground and in the air, and the internalization of congestion externalities.” The study found no evidence that rival air carriers’ on-time performance was negatively affected by the presence of an airline that had recently merged, while providing some tentative evidence that improvements in efficiency at merged airlines may also be largely matched by competitors on routes that the merging carriers previously served. While the primary focus of the research was mergers and on-time performance, the researchers also looked at other measures of quality, such as flight cancellations, baggage handling, and customer complaints. The findings include: Critics and regulators have questioned whether consolidating operations affect service and whether the merged airline exploits its market power by reducing its investments in quality. “In this case, however, the larger combined pool of resources may provide flexibility that enhances service quality,” Prince and Simon write. “More available ground crews and gate agents, more landing spots, and larger numbers of planes at an airport can provide increased flexibility to readjust resources in response to delays and equipment failures. “Overall, our findings suggest that airline mergers do not harm, and may ultimately benefit, consumers via enhanced service quality in the form of on-time performance, particularly a few years after the merger,” they write. “Of course, a full welfare assessment must consider price changes as well as changes in all other quality dimensions, but for at least those quality dimensions we examine in our analysis, there does not appear to be any evidence of any notable worsening.” The researchers used DOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics flight-level data on 26 US carriers’ on-time performance from 1998 to 2013. They limited their sample to 3,917 nonstop routes. Nine of the 10 carriers that merged made up the largest carriers in their sample.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

It's often said that airline mergers lead to more headaches for travelers, including more flight delays, late arrivals and missed connections. But an analysis of 15 years of U.S. Department of Transportation statistics found that airline consolidation has had little negative impact on on-time performance. In fact, two Indiana University researchers found evidence that mergers lead to long-term improvements, likely due to improved efficiencies. The research is forthcoming in the Journal of Industrial Economics. The authors of the study are Jeffrey T. Prince, chair and professor of business economics and the Harold A. Poling Chair of Strategic Management in the IU Kelley School of Business; and Daniel H. Simon, associate professor in the IU School of Public and Environmental Affairs. Their paper is among the first to look at quality responses to airline mergers and is one of just a few papers that analyze quality responses to mergers of any kind. Prior research has mainly focused on the price effects of mergers. "While we find some limited evidence of on-time performance worsening in the two years immediately following a merger, we find no evidence of on-time performance worsening in the long run," Prince and Simon wrote. "In many cases, we find evidence that on-time performance improves in the long run, and suggestive evidence that it is most pronounced on routes where both merging airlines operated pre-merger." The IU professors analyzed on-time performance for five major airline mergers since 2000, including American Airlines' acquisition of Trans World Airlines in 2001; America West's acquisition of U.S. Airways in 2005; Delta Airlines' merger with Northwest Airlines in 2008; United Airlines' merger with Continental Airlines in 2010; and Southwest Airlines' acquisition of Airtran Airways in 2011. Prince and Simon used three years of data prior to each merger and then up to five years of data afterward. To create a control group, they looked at on-time performance for the merging carriers' rivals, which enabled them to better identify the impact of mergers on airline service quality. Due to the immense size of their dataset, they focused on activity on the 10th, the 15th and 20th of each month. "While travel time is little changed in the first two years following a merger, it falls by about one to two minutes (1 percent) in the following three to five years," they wrote. "None of the results provide any evidence for the conventional wisdom that mergers worsen on-time performance. "Further analysis reveals that we find the biggest improvement in on-time performance in the long-run, post-merger period on some of the routes where we would expect merger effects to be most pronounced -- routes that both carriers served prior to merging," they said. "These routes offer the greatest opportunities for efficiencies, including consolidation of operations on the ground and in the air, and the internalization of congestion externalities." Their study found no evidence that rival air carriers' on-time performance was negatively affected by the presence of an airline that had recently merged, while providing some tentative evidence that improvements in efficiency at merged airlines may also be largely matched by competitors on routes that the merging carriers previously served. While the primary focus of the research was mergers and on-time performance, the researchers also looked at other measures of quality, such as flight cancellations, baggage handling and customer complaints. They found: Critics and regulators have questioned whether consolidating operations affect service and whether the merged airline exploits its market power by reducing its investments in quality. "In this case, however, the larger combined pool of resources may provide flexibility that enhances service quality," Prince and Simon said. "More available ground crews and gate agents, more landing spots and larger numbers of planes at an airport can provide increased flexibility to readjust resources in response to delays and equipment failures. "Overall, our findings suggest that airline mergers do not harm, and may ultimately benefit, consumers via enhanced service quality in the form of on-time performance, particularly a few years after the merger," they added. "Of course, a full welfare assessment must consider price changes as well as changes in all other quality dimensions, but for at least those quality dimensions we examine in our analysis, there does not appear to be any evidence of any notable worsening." The professors used DOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics flight-level data on 26 U.S. carriers' on-time performance from 1998 to 2013. They limited their same to 3,917 non-stop routes. Nine of the ten carriers that merged made up the largest carriers in their sample.

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