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Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Li J.,Queen's University of Belfast | Salamh Y.,Queen's University of Belfast | Al-Laqtah N.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu2+), and cadmium ion (Cd2+) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g-1, respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu2+ and Cd2+. For Cu2+, binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd2+, the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Salem N.M.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Ahmad R.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Food Control | Year: 2010

This study was undertaken to determine the presence of mycotoxins in foods from Jordan. For this purpose, a total of 108 samples of different groups of foods widely consumed by the Jordanian population were collected during 2008-2009 years. Samples were analyzed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, zearalenone and T-2 toxin by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The predominant mycotoxin was ochratoxin A with a mean level of 4.17 μg kg-1 in 25% of analyzed samples. Furthermore, aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins were detected with a contamination frequency of 3%, 4% and 2%, respectively. The present report is the first one ever carried out on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food consumed by the Jordanian population. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Degs Y.S.,Hashemite University | Khalili F.I.,University of Jordan
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The removal of organosulphur compounds (ORS) from diesel fuel is an important aspect of Jordanian's effort to reduce air pollution by sulphur oxides. The results of this work revealed that activated carbon (AC) has an excellent adsorption for the ORS from non-aqueous diesel medium. Experimental data revealed that percentage removal of the ORS was slightly affected with particle size of the adsorbent, which indicates that elimination of the ORS mainly occurred on the external surface area and the adsorption onto the pores of the adsorbent has a small effect on the entire elimination process. Removal of the ORS by the AC has an endothermic nature where percentage removal values were increased by temperature. The maximum percentage removal value was 72% which was reported at: 2.0. g, 300-500 μm, 25 °C, and 3 days shaking. The experimental results were plotted and treated with Langmuir isotherm, uncommon isotherm shapes were obtained. Therefore, it was not fitted to the experimental results which might reflect a complex nature of adsorbing the ORS onto the AC. However, this behaviour gives an indication on the complex adsorption mechanisms. Finally, the mode of interaction between the ORS and the AC was characterised by comparing the changes in the position and intensity of the surface functional groups using FTIR technique. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Al-Ghouti M.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Degs Y.,Hashemite University | Mustafa F.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Fuel | Year: 2010

The precise determination of the heat of combustion is of great importance for trading automotive diesel. The net heat of combustion (NHC) of fuel is related to the hydrogen elemental composition of fuel as obtained by elemental analysis. Heat of combustion expressed as gross heat of combustion (GHC) and net heat of combustion (NHC) have been predicted from data obtained by proximate analysis (density, ash, water and sulphur content) (ASTM D4868). GHC was obtained using bomb calorimetry (ASTM D240). The results of ASTM D4868 and ASTM D240 were found in good agreement. GHC and NHC fall within the relatively narrow range 45.24-46.08 and 41.91-43.27 MJ/kg, respectively. GHCs of tested diesel samples are, on average, about 7% greater than NHCs. The present paper also present a simple analytical method for determination of hydrogen content, GHC, and NHC of automotive diesel fuel using FTIR spectroscopy and partial-least squares calibration (PLS-1). PLS-1 had a high prediction power for prediction of hydrogen from FTIR spectra of diesel samples. The spectral ranges used in calibration were 400-670 and 2846-2970 cm-1. On the other hand, classical least squares calibration (CLS) was found invalid for determination of hydrogen content in diesel. The results obtained by the proposed analytical method were almost to those obtained by ASTM D4868 and ASTM D240. PLS-1 method, offers a simple and reliable analytical method for quantification of hydrogen content in diesel samples without running expensive analysis like those carried out using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) instruments. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Khraisheh M.,Qatar University | Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Stanford C.A.,Southern Water
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The efficiency of iron coated activated alumina, ferric oxihydroxide and granular activated carbon for the removal of humic substance (HS) from water and wastewater was demonstrated in batch studies. This paper investigated the use of these successful adsorption-adsorbate systems in a continuous flow mode in an effort to obtain the required design and operational data; essential for successful application in water treatment works. The adsorbents were used individually. The influence of the various molecular mass fractions on the adsorption ability of the various systems was considered. Fractionation of humic substances was carried out and low, medium and high molecular mass fractions were produced. Two different column diameters (2.5 and 1 cm) were used in the experimental runs. The smaller diameter column was used for experiments dealing with the lower molecular weigh humics as these are very difficult to produce in large enough quantities to carry out continuous adsorption runs in the traditional 2.5cm diameter laboratory adsorption columns. The dissolved organic content (DOC), ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) values were measure and analysed under different operating conditions. Furthermore, the experimental results were modelled using the Thomas model and the empty bed contact time model (EBCT). The Mass Transfer Zone was also analysed for all cases. The results indicated strongly the influence of molecular mass in the adsorption of humic substances. In addition, two distinctive features appear from these results; GAC is able to remove high MM although lacking of mesoporosity (attributed to precipitation and alteration ofHSconformation) and β-FeOOH does not show such a high adsorption capacity as previously predicted, attributed to the non-equilibrium state and to the lack of surface under the media compaction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Degs Y.S.,Hashemite University | Amer M.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Talanta | Year: 2010

The viscosity index (VI) and the base number (BN) of motor oils are the most important parameters to be measured in order to assess their performance and service time. Both parameters were simply obtained for virgin and recycled motor oil samples using multivariate calibration based on the FTIR data. Analysis showed that the PLS-1 has outperformed CLS and PCR for the oil parameters prediction. Five and four PLS-1 latent variables were found optimum to obtained the VI and the BN from the FTIR data; respectively. With high accuracy (99-102%) and precision (3-11%), the BN could be determined over the range 4.57-16.45 mg KOH g-1 and the VI over the range 96-153. The outputs of the PLS-1 were found comparable to those obtained by the expensive and time-consuming ASTM methods. This developed method is highly recommended for quick monitoring of the motor oil quality parameters. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ahmad R.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Awwad A.M.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010

The adsorption of As(V) ions from aqueous solution onto treated granular zeolitic tuff (TZT) has been investigated. In this study, the effects of adsorbent dose, solution pH, initial concentration, contact time, and temperature were examined. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption behavior of As(V) ions onto the TZT adsorbent was an endothermic process, resulting in higher adsorption capacities at higher temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, the negative values of ΔGo and positive values of ΔHo, revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were employed to fit the isothermal adsorption. The results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm model is the best-fit model to predict the experimental data. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Farhan A.M.,University of Baghdad | Awwad A.M.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010

The experimental densities, ρ, relative permittivities, ε, and refractive indices, nD, of binary mixtures of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one + butan-1-ol and + butan-2-ol have been measured at T) (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole mole fraction range. From density data, excess molar volumes, VE, were calculated at various temperatures. VE is negative for all systems investigated. The experimental results have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation, and parameters from leastsquares analysis have been reported. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Al-Ismail K.M.,University of Jordan | Alsaed A.K.,University of Jordan | Ahmad R.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Dabbas M.,University of Jordan
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A new method was developed to determine the presence of some refined vegetable oils in olive oil based on the sum of campesterol and stigmasterol percentages. Model systems of corn, soybean, sunflower and cotton seed oils in olive oil at levels of 5%, 10% and 20% were prepared. The unsaponifiables of these model systems were analysed by GLC using polar column with high thermal stability. An olive oil authenticity factor based on the summation of campesterol and stigmasterol percentages was established as an indicator of olive oil adulteration with vegetable oils. The results indicate the possibility to detect the presence as little as 5% of these plant oils in olive oil. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ahmad R.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Salem N.M.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Estaitieh H.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in 519 samples; comprising eggs, chicken and meat (lamb and beef), collected from Jordan were determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The samples were Soxhlet extracted for 8 h in 250 mL petroleum ether. The cleanup of the samples was performed by Florisil column chromatography and analysis was done on a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 28% (38/134), 20% (23/115) and 49% (131/270) of the examined eggs, chicken and meat samples, respectively, were contaminated with OCP residues. HCHs and DDTs are the most prominently noticed compounds, as they were detected at a high incidence. On the other hand, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin and endrin compounds were only present in less than 7% of the analyzed samples. These residues are present despite complete ban on the use of OCPs for agricultural purposes in Jordan. No residues of op′-DDD, op′-DDT, dieldrin, α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan were detected. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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