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Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Degs Y.S.,Hashemite University | Khalili F.I.,University of Jordan
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The removal of organosulphur compounds (ORS) from diesel fuel is an important aspect of Jordanian's effort to reduce air pollution by sulphur oxides. The results of this work revealed that activated carbon (AC) has an excellent adsorption for the ORS from non-aqueous diesel medium. Experimental data revealed that percentage removal of the ORS was slightly affected with particle size of the adsorbent, which indicates that elimination of the ORS mainly occurred on the external surface area and the adsorption onto the pores of the adsorbent has a small effect on the entire elimination process. Removal of the ORS by the AC has an endothermic nature where percentage removal values were increased by temperature. The maximum percentage removal value was 72% which was reported at: 2.0. g, 300-500 μm, 25 °C, and 3 days shaking. The experimental results were plotted and treated with Langmuir isotherm, uncommon isotherm shapes were obtained. Therefore, it was not fitted to the experimental results which might reflect a complex nature of adsorbing the ORS onto the AC. However, this behaviour gives an indication on the complex adsorption mechanisms. Finally, the mode of interaction between the ORS and the AC was characterised by comparing the changes in the position and intensity of the surface functional groups using FTIR technique. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Li J.,Queens University of Belfast | Salamh Y.,Queens University of Belfast | Al-Laqtah N.,Queens University of Belfast | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu2+), and cadmium ion (Cd2+) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g-1, respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu2+ and Cd2+. For Cu2+, binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd2+, the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Al-Ismail K.M.,University of Jordan | Alsaed A.K.,University of Jordan | Ahmad R.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Al-Dabbas M.,University of Jordan
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A new method was developed to determine the presence of some refined vegetable oils in olive oil based on the sum of campesterol and stigmasterol percentages. Model systems of corn, soybean, sunflower and cotton seed oils in olive oil at levels of 5%, 10% and 20% were prepared. The unsaponifiables of these model systems were analysed by GLC using polar column with high thermal stability. An olive oil authenticity factor based on the summation of campesterol and stigmasterol percentages was established as an indicator of olive oil adulteration with vegetable oils. The results indicate the possibility to detect the presence as little as 5% of these plant oils in olive oil. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Khraisheh M.,Qatar University | Al-Ghouti M.A.,Industrial Chemistry Center | Stanford C.A.,Southern Water
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The efficiency of iron coated activated alumina, ferric oxihydroxide and granular activated carbon for the removal of humic substance (HS) from water and wastewater was demonstrated in batch studies. This paper investigated the use of these successful adsorption-adsorbate systems in a continuous flow mode in an effort to obtain the required design and operational data; essential for successful application in water treatment works. The adsorbents were used individually. The influence of the various molecular mass fractions on the adsorption ability of the various systems was considered. Fractionation of humic substances was carried out and low, medium and high molecular mass fractions were produced. Two different column diameters (2.5 and 1 cm) were used in the experimental runs. The smaller diameter column was used for experiments dealing with the lower molecular weigh humics as these are very difficult to produce in large enough quantities to carry out continuous adsorption runs in the traditional 2.5cm diameter laboratory adsorption columns. The dissolved organic content (DOC), ultraviolet (UV) absorbance and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) values were measure and analysed under different operating conditions. Furthermore, the experimental results were modelled using the Thomas model and the empty bed contact time model (EBCT). The Mass Transfer Zone was also analysed for all cases. The results indicated strongly the influence of molecular mass in the adsorption of humic substances. In addition, two distinctive features appear from these results; GAC is able to remove high MM although lacking of mesoporosity (attributed to precipitation and alteration ofHSconformation) and β-FeOOH does not show such a high adsorption capacity as previously predicted, attributed to the non-equilibrium state and to the lack of surface under the media compaction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Farhan A.M.,University of Baghdad | Awwad A.M.,Industrial Chemistry Center
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010

The experimental densities, ρ, relative permittivities, ε, and refractive indices, nD, of binary mixtures of dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one + butan-1-ol and + butan-2-ol have been measured at T) (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole mole fraction range. From density data, excess molar volumes, VE, were calculated at various temperatures. VE is negative for all systems investigated. The experimental results have been correlated using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation, and parameters from leastsquares analysis have been reported. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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