Karachi, Pakistan
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Katyara S.,Sukkur Institute of Business Administration | Staszewski L.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Musavi H.A.,Indus University | Soomro F.,Usman Institute of Technology
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research | Year: 2017

With the emerging issues about the ecological pollution and potential energy deficiency, many efforts are taken to initiate the renewable energy plans, established primarily with wind energy, solar panels and low capacity water power plants etc. These forms of power production are called Distributed Generation (DG), as they are installed near the load centers. Power utilities all over the world are welcoming DGs to increase their generation capacity. With the aim to cut electricity bills, DGs are brought into power networks in order to meet the increased load demands especially during peak hours. It is expected that in the future, more and more DGs will be taken into system. Therefore, with the increased number of DGs, the fault level issue becomes more complex. The interconnection of DG introduces somehow protection problems such as islanding, relay settings and increase of short circuit capacity. In this research, the influence of DG interconnection over the short circuit capacity in the radial distribution network was analyzed and the effective protection scheme for distribution network was proposed then. The effective method for setting the optimal Coordination Time Intervals (CTI) between the transformer and the feeder relays in real distribution systems was also discussed. A protection scheme based on over-current techniques was proposed for synchronous DGs, connected to utility feeder operating in grid-coupled mode, in order to make the most of DG benefits to customers. The proposed solutions were verified with MATLAB software simulations. © 2017 Int. J. Mech. Eng. Rob. Res.


Ghauri S.P.,Indus University | Ahmed R.R.,Indus University | Vveinhardt J.,Lithuanian Sports University | Streimikiene D.,Lithuanian Sports University
Amfiteatru Economic | Year: 2017

The objective of this research paper is to examine the relationship between relative price variability and inflation by using consumer price index (CPI) of Pakistan. The outcomes of the research further divided into food and non-food groups too. The monthly data of CPI was taken from the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, from August 2001 to July 2011 (with 2000-01 base) for 92 composite commodities with 12 sub-groups. We employed the Granger causality testing approach for the evaluation of any possible influence of one indicator to another. In this scenario, it is viable to state that there is a presence of causality and bidirectional feedback between the variables or the two variables are independent. The major issue is to identify a suitable statistical method that enables us to analyze the association among the variables. The findings of this study demonstrated that there is a probable relationship between inflation (DPt) and both un-weighted measures of price variability (VPt and SPt) for the whole items that have been considered for the analysis. Apart from that, this association also exists between food and non-food categories of CPI basket.


Ahmed Z.,Indus University | Hamma S.,CNRS Research Institute of Communication and Cybernetics of Nantes
International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications, WINCOM 2015 | Year: 2015

Two Level Scheduling Algorithm (TLSA) is a QoS-enabled fair and efficient connection admission control and packet scheduling algorithm for WiMAX networks. At the first level, an inter-class scheduling algorithm distributes bandwidth among various WiMAX service classes. Then at the second level, class specific algorithms distribute bandwidth among connections of the associated class. The present paper focuses on a Markov chain based analytical model of TLSA that is comprehensive enough to depict the behavior of inter-class and intra-class scheduling algorithms. Extensive simulations were performed and several criteria were considered to assess the accuracy of the proposed model. We considered bandwidth allocation in both inter-class and intra-class scheduling algorithms, percentage of lost packets and the service ratio. The experiments indicate that the analytical model faithfully captures the behavior of TLSA. © 2015 IEEE.


Jha A.,Indus University | Adlakha N.,Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
2013 Nirma University International Conference on Engineering, NUiCONE 2013 | Year: 2013

The study of calcium diffusion in neuron cells has gained interest among researchers during the last two decades, due to its wide variety of roles in human body like muscles contraction, secretion, metabolism, signal transduction etc. Most of the theoretical investigations on calcium diffusion in neurons have been carried out for one and two dimensional cases by various research workers and that too by incorporating a point source of influx. In order to have more realistic study a three dimensional model of calcium diffusion in a cylindrical shaped neuron cells has been developed in this paper. Apart from the point source, the line and surface sources of an influx of Ca2+ have been incorporated in the model. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. The region is discretized using three dimensional circular sectored elements. Variational finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study effect of point source, line source and surface source of an influx on Ca2+ distribution in neuron cell. © 2013 IEEE.


Akhter S.,Jinnah Post Grad Medical Center | Warraich U.A.,Indus University | Rizvi N.,Jinnah Post Grad Medical Center | Idrees N.,Jinnah Post Grad Medical Center | Zaina F.,Jinnah Post Grad Medical Center
Tobacco Induced Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Measuring eCo is rapid, non-invasive and inexpensive tool and correlate correctly with carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the increase in end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in exhaled breath of passive smokers and healthy smokers after cigarette and shisha smoking.Findings: In a cross sectional study eCO levels were measured in 70 subjects (24 cigarette smokers, 20 shisha smoker, 26 passive smokers) by use of portable device. Smokers were asked to smoke shisha for 30 mins in shisha cafe or to smoke 5 cigarettes in 30 mins in a restaurant. eCo levels were measured at baseline (30 mins), 35 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins in all groups after entry to the venue. The baseline mean eCO level among cigarette smokers was 3.5 +/-0.6 ppm (part per million), passive cigarette smokers 3.7+/-1.0 ppm, shisha smokers 27.7+/-4.9 ppm and passive shisha smokers 18.3+/-8.4 ppm .The mean increase in eCO after 90 min among smokers was 9.4+/-4.6 (p < 0.005), passive cigarette smokers 3.5+/-2.5 (p <0.05), shisha smokers 57.9+/-27.4 (p <0.005) and passive shisha smokers 13.3+/-4.6 (p = 0.03).Conclusion: Exposure to shisha smoke is a cause of elevated eCO in smokers and passive smokers and due to in-door pollution, sitting in shisha bar causes significant increase in eCO levels. © 2014 Akhter et al.


Patel B.,MATS University | Kaurase K.P.,MATS University | Bisen A.M.,Indus University
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2015

Design of Turbo machinery is complex and efficiency is directly related to material performance, material selection is of prime importance. Temperature limitations are the most crucial limiting factors to gas turbine efficiencies. This paper presents the life of GTD 111 applied to gas turbine blade based on LCF and TMF test results. The LCF tests were conducted under various strain ranges based on gas turbine operating conditions. In addition, IP (in-phase) and OP (out of phase) TMF tests were conducted under various strain ranges. The paper will focus light on above issues and each plays an important role within the Gas Turbine Material literature and ultimately influences on planning and development practices. It is expected that this comprehensive contribution will be very beneficial to everyone involved or interested in Gas Turbines. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Bhat S.,Canara Engineering College | Nagaraja H.N.,Indus University
2015 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems, SPICES 2015 | Year: 2015

In conventional buck-boost converters, the output voltage is inverted. Hardware circuitry or microcontrollers are used to trigger a switch in the converter. In the proposed study, a non inverting buck-boost converter is implemented for PV system. The Pulse width modulation (PWM) signals for two MOSFETS in the converter are generated by DSP TMS 320 2808. Depending on the solar panel input, buck-boost converter charges the battery. The DC loads are driven from the battery. The load voltage and load current are sensed and compared with the reference voltage. Hardware circuitry or microcontroller is less accurate and using these systems the solar energy cannot be efficiently converted into electrical energy. In industry and commercial applications Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used for automation. The same DSP can be used to generate PWM signals so as to get maximum electrical energy from solar energy. The DSP is more accurate and this works in real-time scenarios. The efficient utilization of resources such as DSP is achieved in the proposed study as the same DSP is used for generating PWM signal. In the proposed study, PWM signals are generated from DSP depending on load voltage and load current. The proposed work is better as compared to existing systems in terms of line and load regulation, efficiency, accuracy and speed as validated by experimental results. © 2015 IEEE.


Bhat S.,Canara Engineering College | Nagaraja H.N.,Indus University
2014 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, IEEE ICCIC 2014 | Year: 2014

In Photo-Voltaic (PV) systems to increase the conversion efficiency, efficient converters and efficient PWM switching circuits are required. To design efficient converters and PWM switching circuits mathematical models are necessary. In the proposed study, the mathematical model for photovoltaic cell and for buck-boost converter is developed. In the mathematical model, the parasitic elements of switch, inductor, diode and capacitance are considered. The mathematical model for PWM generator is also developed. The models are developed using volt-sec and ampere-sec equations. The mathematical models developed are validated by experimental results. © 2014 IEEE.


Soomro M.H.,Indus University | Musavi S.H.A.,Indus University | Pandey B.,Chitkara University
International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology | Year: 2016

In this research, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect epileptic seizures from EEG signals is proposed. CCA was applied on EEG signals and feature vectors corresponding to Eigen values were extracted. These Eigen values were fed as input to Artificial Neural Network (ANN)‘s widely explored model Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNNs) for classification between occurrence of non-epileptic seizures and epileptic seizures. The extracted Eigen values using CCA proved to be a better epileptic seizures detector and provide average classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as 92.583%, 93.25% and 91% respectively. © 2016 SERSC.


Ali M.G.,Indus University
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Calibration and testing of open surface water bath is a new technique and may be used for other liquid bath testing. Due to some critical circumstances the bath is not covered by the manufacturing company so is prone to the effects of surrounding environmental conditions. Due to this effect, bath temperature is not stable and calibration and testing cannot be performed under these conditions. For this type of calibration the reference instruments should measure temperature with very high levels of accuracy. A Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT), with super thermometer (indicator), is used for high accuracy calibration. Oil-filled flasks are used as a secondary medium to calibrate the bath and to reduce the evaporation, and instability in the temperature measurements. Therefore, on the basis of stable temperature with good precision and minimum uncertainty, the proposed method is found to be suitable for the calibration of open surface water baths. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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