Indra , also known as Śakra in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas or gods and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism. He is the god of rain and thunderstorms. He wields a lightning thunderbolt known as vajra and rides on a white elephant known as Airavata. Indra is the supreme deity and is the brother of Varuna and Yama and is also mentioned as an Āditya, son of Aditi. His home is situated on Mount Meru in the heaven. He has many epithets, notably vṛṣan the mighty, and vṛtrahan, slayer of Vṛtra, Meghavahana "the one who rides the clouds" and Devapati "the lord of gods or devas". Indra appears as the name of a daeva in Zoroastrianism , while his epithet, Verethragna, appears as a god of victory. Indra is also called Śakra frequently in the Vedas and in Buddhism . He is known in Burmese as သိကြားမင်း, pronounced: ; in Thai as พระอินทร์ Phra In, in Khmer as ព្រះឥន្ទ្រា pronounced , in Malay as Indera,in Kannada as ಇಂದ್ರ Indra, in Telugu as ఇంద్రుడు Indrudu, in Tamil as இந்திரன் Inthiran, Chinese as 帝释天 Dìshìtiān, and in Japanese as 帝釈天 Taishakuten. He is celebrated as a demiurge who pushes up the sky, releases Ushas from the Vala cave, and slays Vṛtra; both latter actions are central to the Soma sacrifice. He is associated with Vajrapani - the Chief Dharmapala or Defender and Protector of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha who embodies the power of the Five Dhyani Buddhas. On the other hand, he also commits many kinds of mischief for which he is sometimes punished. In Puranic mythology, Indra is bestowed with a heroic and almost brash and amorous character at times, even as his reputation and role diminished in later Hinduism with the rise of the Trimurti. Wikipedia.
Indra | Date: 2017-04-19
Method for reducing the inrush current of an inductive load, particularly a transformer, comprising the following steps:a) Connecting a DC power source (4) to the transformer for a time tc, to magnetize its magnetic core until saturation is reached, and connecting the transformer to the AC mains by means of an electromechanical switch (6), in an initially open position.b) Disconnecting the transformer from the DC power source (4), the magnetic flux being reduced to its residual value.c) Closing the electromechanical switch (6) to complete the connection, this connection point being determined by the phase angle selected from the sinusoidal signal of the voltage mains, in such a way that magnetic flux corresponding to the steady state voltage equals the residual magnetic flux that remains when the transformer is disconnected from the DC power source (4).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-17-2015 | Award Amount: 45.29M | Year: 2016
The PJ 14 CNS aims to specify and develop the future Technologies coming from the Communication, Navigation and Surveillance domains in order to support and manage the Operational Services, like the 4D Trajectory Management, in the future ATM System. Performance requirements for CNS systems are becoming increasingly complex and demanding and need to be considered as part of an integrated and holistic System of Systems, which includes air and ground CNS solutions considering convergence towards a common infrastructure, and a unified concept of operations, where possible. In parallel, CNS systems and infrastructure for both airborne and ground must take a more business- and performance oriented approach with efficient use of resources delivering the required capability in a cost-effective and spectrum efficient manner. All the activities performed in the PJ 14 CNS will be developed at European Level in order to avoid a fragmented approach and to ensure the interoperability as depicted in the ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP). The CNS technologies support the GANP in terms of: Airport Operations Globally Interoperable System Data Optimum capacity and flexible flights The PJ 14 aims to develop and improve solution, not already available, from the technological point of view to support the future ATM global system, according the timeframe addressed by the ATM Master Plan, mainly in: Surface Data Sharing to let a huge data exchange for an effective and efficient airport operations and awareness New Data Communications infrastructure to reduce the ATCo Workload avoiding misunderstandings and improve the efficiency Collaborative Air Traffic Management to support the ATCos, pilots, airport operators to improve the situation awareness Optimisation of Capacity, Flexible Use of Airspace and Turn-around operations to avoid congestion in ATM domain In the PJ14 all the main stakeholders are involved to ensure that all the operational needs are well considered.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-14-2015 | Award Amount: 43.25M | Year: 2016
Single European Sky the vision is clearly described in the ATM Masterplan. Reaching the goals for the European Airspace is only possible with focused technical developments on European level. The air traffic controller is the main player in the traffic management at tactical level. This project aims at providing the air traffic controller with more automated tools, thus freeing capacity for situations where human intervention is crucial. This provides even safer service for an increasing amount of traffic and with lower costs, as required by airspace users. This project is a part of the SESAR programme and addresses separation management. It will not only improve current conflict detection tools, but also develop new tools aiding the air traffic controller with resolution advisory and monitoring of flight trajectory. The project also addresses new ways of working together. Air traffic controllers traditionally work in pairs and in specific airspace. Could we change this to multi-planner setup, sector less airspace and seamless cross-border operations? Our project will ensure the research is developed to a stage where it can be used in operational air traffic management systems in Europe. This ensures that anyone can fly safer, cheaper and quicker in Europe in 10 years. Another really important issue is the integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems drones. Drones are new to European Air Traffic Management, and it is urgent to address concepts and technological developments needed to handle this kind of traffic safely. The companies involved in this project are the only ones that can deliver this kind of result. Not on their own but as the unique cooperation between air navigation service providers and air and ground industry. The capabilities to provide sustainable results usable throughout Europe by fast-time, real-time simulations and live trials ensures that developed prototypes are working in the context of future traffic and ATM systems.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-21-2015 | Award Amount: 49.25M | Year: 2016
One of the main obstacles of reaching Single European Skys objectives is management of flight trajectories. Inaccuracies are difficult to spot and information given to stakeholders about the trajectory is limited, arriving late, and full of inconsistencies and wrong assumptions. Military Flights are currently not integrated in the ATM-system, so demanding special treatment. Additionally, there is a lack of complete, updated, unique and coherent aeronautical and meteorological information at European level, which again limits the accuracy of the predicted trajectory and so difficult detecting incoming issues and designing optimum solutions. This project addresses solutions for the above limitations. Harmonized and global trajectory information sharing, including improved negotiation mechanisms, will enable significant operational benefits on flight management. The aim is to enable a unique and integrated view of all flights trajectories (including military ones) among the stakeholders. This is improved thanks to new tools and capabilities ensuring all stakeholders are managing a single, updated and complete view of the forecasted meteorology and airspace configuration. Both solutions above will increase safety and efficiency - a very important step towards ensuring that anyone can fly safer, cheaper and quicker in Europe in 10 years. As so many stakeholders are involved, this issue cannot be solved at national level. All stakeholders (mainly air navigation service providers, as well as air and ground industry partners) need to be involved as all will need to perform changes to ensure successful implementation. The SESAR 2020 Programme is the only place where this can happen. In this project we have ensured participation of the major ATM stakeholders which ensures having the knowledge and expertise to come up with the concepts, prototypes and platforms to provide sustainable results usable throughout Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-11-2015 | Award Amount: 30.94M | Year: 2016
The S2020 project PJ09 Advanced DCB evolves the existing DCB process to a powerful distributed network management function which takes full advantage from the SESAR Layered Collaborative Planning, Trajectory Management principles and SWIM Technology to improve the effectiveness of ATM resource planning and the network performance of the ATM system in Europe. Solution 1 develops shared situation awareness with respect to demand, capacity and performance impacts. Traffic and demand forecast have improved reliability based on complexity assessment and the computation of confidence indexes. Network Operations will be continuously monitored through Network Performance KPA/KPI. Network impact assessment will analyse trade-offs and facilitate collaborative decision making processes. Solution 2 forms the core functionality of the INAP process (everything which can and should be decided locally. Solution PJ09-02 is the logical follow-up of the SESAR1 Local DCB toolset. It includes: INAP management, ASM integrated into DCB, reconciliation of DCB measures with local complexity management, ATC and Arrival Management. The solution addresses the integration of Local Network Management with extended ATC planning and arrival management activities in the short-term to execution in a seamless process. Solution 3 delivers subsidiary Network Management facilitated by a rolling NOP planning environment (including weather, demand pattern and capacity bottlenecks). Network Operations planning and Execution is managed by an agreed set of rules and procedures, guiding subsidiary DCB and UDPP measures under consideration of trade-offs and network performance targets. Collaborative 4D constraints management integrates AUs priorities and reconciles DCB measures with Airports, ACCs, AU and NM.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-15-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 18.70M | Year: 2017
Big Data will have a profound economic and societal impact in the mobility and logistics sector, which is one of the most-used industries in the world contributing to approximately 15% of GDP. Big Data is expected to lead to 500 billion USD in value worldwide in the form of time and fuel savings, and savings of 380 megatons CO2 in mobility and logistics. With freight transport activities projected to increase by 40% in 2030, transforming the current mobility and logistics processes to become significantly more efficient, will have a profound impact. A 10% efficiency improvement may lead to EU cost savings of 100 BEUR. Despite these promises, interestingly only 19 % of EU mobility and logistics companies employ Big Data solutions as part of value creation and business processes. The TransformingTransport project will demonstrate, in a realistic, measurable, and replicable way the transformations that Big Data will bring to the mobility and logistics market. To this end, TransformingTransport, validates the technical and economic viability of Big Data to reshape transport processes and services to significantly increase operational efficiency, deliver improved customer experience, and foster new business models. TransformingTransport will address seven pilot domains of major importance for the mobility and logistics sector in Europe: (1) Smart High-ways, (2) Sustainable Vehicle Fleets, (3) Proactive Rail Infrastructures, (4) Ports as Intelligent Logistics Hubs, (5) Efficient Air Transport, (6) Multi-modal Urban Mobility, (7) Dynamic Supply Chains. The TransformingTransport consortium combines knowledge and solutions of major European ICT and Big Data technology providers together with the competence and experience of key European industry players in the mobility and logistics domain.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-04-2015 | Award Amount: 36.90M | Year: 2016
EUROCONTROLs 2013 Challenges of Growth Report by 2035 more than 20 airports are operating at 80% or more of capacity for 6 or more hours per day drives ATFCM airport delay up from around 1 minute/flight in 2012 to 5-6 minutes in 2035. Whereas social, economic and environmental constraints impede building new runways, secondary airports are hindered by technical, infrastructure and meteorological limitations from absorbing additional traffic. EARTH unites key European aviation partners combining the right expertise and investment to address issues and drive deployment of operational and technical improvements to enhance infrastructure, increase traffic throughput whilst preserving safety and environment. Aligned with the ATM-Masterplan, EARTH focuses on separation and procedures to improve runway and airport throughput considering wake-vortex, weather, environment and noise whilst taking account of different traffic demand, future aircraft capability and airport configurations. Partners validate reduction of arrival/departure separations delivered through optimised runway delivery support tools and study new procedures designed to reduce environmental and noise impact whilst confirming increased runway throughput enabled by ground and on-board space-based augmented navigation systems including GBAS and SBAS. Partners investigate independent rotorcraft operations, fixed-wing and helicopter non-interfering simultaneous approaches, on-board and low-cost ground technology improving access to secondary airports in low visibility, optimising single and multi-runway operations in mixed-mode and dependent runway configurations and enhanced terminal airspace operations through curved approaches. EARTH supports the SESAR Deployment regulation and addresses European concerns on environmental sustainability, reduction of noise and fuel consumption and brings low cost improved access to regional airports making regions economically attractive with potential for new jobs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-IA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-27-2015 | Award Amount: 27.80M | Year: 2016
DIGITS will contribute to reinforce the Enabling Aviation infrastructure key feature of SESAR 2020 by demonstrating the ATM benefits that can be realized through the use of downlinked 4D trajectory data in ground systems. The project proposes, in a close to operational environment and in fully representative operational conditions, a set of tightly coordinated development and demonstration actions of key airborne and ground stakeholders in Europe. The airborne industry will develop up to certification the worldwide first airborne unit capable of downlinking ADS-C data according to ATN Baseline 2 standard in compliance with PCP AF#6 (Initial Trajectory Information Sharing). The ANSPs and ground industry will build up pre-operational system platforms capable of receiving and processing ADS-C data including the Extended Projected Profile (EPP). These platforms will e.g. display the shared trajectory data to controllers on their working positions and integrate it in the Flight data Processing systems for the enhancement of the ground Trajectory Prediction. DIGITS plans to have revenue flights becoming available gradually as from mid 2018. These commercial flights will downlink ADS-C data to be processed in ATM ground systems of four participating ANSPs, covering together a substantial part of European airspace and air traffic under a variety of operational conditions. Demonstrations will be done in a shadow mode system set-up, supported by further offline analysis and post-processing. Project partners will make significant efforts to assess together with operational experts the benefits of initial trajectory sharing, its system impacts, potential human performance impacts and opportunities for further ATM performance improvements. DIGITS will bridge the gap between the early validation of the Trajectory Based Operations concept achieved in SESAR 1, also known as initial 4D, with successful flight trials in 2012 and 2014, and the deployment of PCP AF#6.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-RIA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-12-2015 | Award Amount: 34.72M | Year: 2016
In order to meet forecast traffic growth, PJ01 will develop concepts, tools and procedures to increase the capacity of Terminal Manoeuvring Areas (TMAs) in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner. This will be achieved by taking advantage of the latest technological developments from both an airborne and a ground-system perspective and through the secure sharing of data. The needs of all Airspace Users will be addressed including General Aviation and Rotorcraft. All types of European TMA environments will be considered. For low to medium density/complexity TMAs the driver will be to exploit the environmental benefits achieved from Continuous Climb Operations, Continuous Descent Operations and improved arrival sequencing. For the capacity-constrained high-density/complexity TMAs, particularly including multiple airports, the focus will be to minimise delays and improve resilience alongside providing environmental benefits. This will be achieved by enhancing arrival and departure management by the dynamic use of precision navigation routes. Traffic flows will be optimised by improving the integration of the management of arrivals with departures and by improving the capability to balance traffic demand and available capacity across the network and airports. To provide increased resilience in poor weather and a reduction in go-arounds, investigations will assess the use of tools that display traffic information in the cockpit. This will help manage airborne spacing, sequencing and merging with other aircraft, under the overall control of Air Traffic Control in systemised airspace. To ensure that the full benefits are achieved and that the expected performance improvements are realised in the context of the overall ATM network, close co-ordination will take place with other projects, particularly those addressing airport management, network management, separation management and the overall content integration within the programme.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SESAR-IA | Phase: SESAR.IR-VLD.Wave1-25-2015 | Award Amount: 5.79M | Year: 2017
There are periods during the day when variation in aircraft arrival times combine to exceed the capacity of the destination airport to handle them without incurring airborne delay. Such delay causes increased emissions and noise in the vicinity of the airport, as well as increasing the aircraft operators fuel costs. Greater congestion increases the air traffic control workload and can result in less efficient aircraft profiles. To reduce airborne delays near the destination airport and the associated negative effects, two concepts can be used. One is to adjust an aircrafts departure time by holding it on the ground so that its arrival time avoids the predicted peak in arriving traffic. Other methods involve trajectory extension or slowing down an aircraft in flight. This requires the arrival sequence to be calculated earlier than in current operations so that action can be taken early enough to have a meaningful effect. The XSTREAM project will demonstrate the benefits gained through this latter concept. These methods can be used in combination with the former concept, traditionally regarded as a network management action, but refined through the use of arrival management tools. The project will demonstrate the use of arrival management techniques for pre-departure aircraft, the calculation, updating and passing of arrival management actions for airborne aircraft such as target time, time-to-lose/gain, or speed advisory from the destination arrival management system to upstream control units, and the impact of multiple arrival constraints within an Upper Airspace Control unit. The operational demonstrations will be performed upon aircraft arriving at Paris CDG and Orly, London Heathrow and Gatwick, and Zurich. These optimized arrivals will be supported by several en-route Control units, which also will demonstrate how multiple arrival constraints can be handled. The project will demonstrate the use of SWIM and remain aligned with engineering standardization work