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Affandi,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | dela Rosa Medina C.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Agrivita | Year: 2013

A research aimed to investigate the age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis Hood in mango agroecosystem has conducted at PT. Trigatra Rajasa farm, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia, from April to May 2013. A Completely Randomized Design, Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were used to design, knew the variance and significantly different among the treatment, respectively. Thirteen mango trees set in cross section were sampled and observed for the presence of S. dorsalis including weeds under the mango canopy and four cardinal directions of border. The sample was taken every week for one month. The result showed that instar one and adult were preferred to associate with weeds under the mango canopy and borders compared to mango leaves, except second instar. Further, observation was presented that all the age structures were given equal male female sex ratio. Based on the total number of population, there was no significant difference in age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis associating with weeds inside the orchard including mango leaves and borders. Twenty-seven species of weeds were discovered to associate with mango agroecosystem and were comprehensively discussed based on what was the most dominant and preferred by S. dorsalis. © 2013, Universitas Brawijaya.

Martasari C.,Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute | Agisimanto D.,Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute | Karsinah,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Reflinur,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Tangerine (Citrus nobilis var. siam Hort.) is the main cultivated cultivar in citrus production centers in Indonesia. Cultivars have different names according to the areas of origin, but they are similar morphologically. The objective was to characterize 20 cultivars of Indonesian tangerine from 9 provinces using morphological and ISSR markers. Characterization was based on the IPGRI descriptor list for leaf, stem, flower and fruit morphology and results showed differences in shapes, colors and rind thickness, and taste of ripe fruit. Differences of fruit characters of Indonesian tangerine cultivars were mainly caused by climate and local environmental effects. ISSR-PCR of DNA from these same cultivars, using eight primers, produced a total of 287 bands of which 253 bands (88.15%) were polymorphic. The dendrogram showed that the 20 cultivars fell into four groups (A to D) with about 0.65-0.91 genetic similarity (GS). Group A consisted of 9 cultivars ('Lumajang', 'Banjar 2', 'Candi', 'Tulungagung', 'Mamuju', 'Tapin' and 'Ponorogo') with GS=0.75. The morphological characteristics of these cultivars were: green fruit color, thin rind, spheroid shape and sweet-acid taste. The B group has five cultivars ('Batola', 'Tlekung', 'Pontianak 2', 'Bangkinang' and 'Madu') with a GS of 0.76 and has similar morphological characteristics, such as: obloid shape fruit, thick rind, yellow with green rind and sweet taste. The C group comprised only one cultivar, 'Banyuwangi', with GS of 0.70 and morphological characteristics of: spheroid moderately thick rind, green to yellow fruit color and sweet-acid in taste. The last group D had five cultivars ('Jember', 'Kintamani', 'Pati', 'Jambi', 'Banjar 2') with GS of 0.77. This group had: obloid fruit shape, thin rind, green to yellow rind color and sweet-acid taste. This study demonstrated evidence that the ISSR procedure is an informative and suitable approach to examine molecular polymorphism and phylogenic relationships in Indonesian tangerine cultivars. © 2013 ISHS.

Sobir,Bogor Agricultural University | Poerwanto R.,Bogor Agricultural University | Santosa E.,Bogor Agricultural University | Sinaga S.,Kopertis Region III | Mansyah E.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is native to South East Asia, including Indonesia. Due to its apomictic reproduction pattern, it is assumed that all mangosteen trees have the same genetic properties. However, field evaluation has identified variability in several morphological characters, such as tree shape, fruit shape, and petal color. Further studies using RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR markers confirmed that there is genetic variability among the mangosteen populations in Indonesia. This variation may have arisen from accumulation of natural mutations, or multi-events of natural hybridization. Observations using ISSR markers on mangosteen and close relatives indicated the possibility of G. malaccensis and G. celebica as the common ancestors of mangosteen. Crop improvement has been conducted by selection of superior trees which has resulted in four new cultivars. Genetic variation has also been successfully obtained using mutation breeding through application of gamma ray irradiation to seed. For further crop improvement, specific primers for important traits have been developed. © 2013 ISHS.

Mansyah E.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Santoso P.J.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Muas I.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Sobir,Bogor Agricultural University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Mangosteen is reproduced through apomixis, from which the seed develops without fertilization. Many tropical fruit species are facultative apomicts, while the mangosteen is an obligate apomict and it is believed that all of its progenies may have same genotype as their mother plant. In an effort to get a better understanding about such a possibility, research to evaluate the genetic variation among mangosteen accessions as well as among progenies from one mother plant were conducted. The plant material used were six mangosteen accessions from West Sumatra and 18 progenies from one mother plant. The progenies consisted of nine seedlings derived from polyembryonic seeds and nine from mono-embryonic seeds. Genetic observation was conducted using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Four primers were used to amplify the genomic DNA of mangosteen. Based on DNA polymorphisms, it was found that genetic variations occurred among accessions and also among progenies within one mother plant. The six mangosteen accessions were separated into five different genotypes that could be further divided into two groups. Genetic similarity of the accessions ranged from 42 to 100%. Parent and offspring analysis showed that 14 of 18 progenies were found to be non-maternal, while the four others were maternal genotypes. Genetic variations were found among the progenies from both poly-embryonic seeds and mono-embryonic seeds. Their genetic similarities to their mother plant ranged from 59 to 100%. These results support previous findings concerning the existence of genetic variation in apomictic mangosteen. © 2013 ISHS.

Sukartini,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Taryono,Gadjah Mada University | Basunanda P.,Gadjah Mada University | Murti R.H.,Gadjah Mada University
Agrivita | Year: 2016

Information about genetic relationship and genetic diversity are an inevitable need in mango breeding program. Base substitution value, genetic distance and grouping of 15 mango accessions based on accessions in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) among 15 mango accessions were assessed. The samples were originated from Mango Germplasm, Cukur Gondang Research Station of Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute, Pasuruan, East Java. Sequencing of Chloroplast DNA was used to obtain nucleotide sequence data. Paired specific primer rpl20 F rps12 R and atp F rbcL R were used for amplification of non-coding area of mango DNA chloroplast and sequencing processes as well. All data were analyzed using Software MEGA 6. The result showed that total numbers and nucleotide base sequences varied among all accessions. All accessions were grouped in five different clusters that might be used as source of parental breeding. © 2016, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

Syah M.J.A.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Mansyah E.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Affandi,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Purnama T.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute | Fatria D.,Indonesian Tropical Fruits Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Yellow latex on fruit is the most prominent constraint to export of mangosteen from Indonesia. Hence, the control of yellow latex is critical to increasing the number of fruit that are suitable for consumers. The objective of this research was to determine the techniques for controlling yellow latex formation. The research was conducted at the farmer orchard in Lima Puluh Kota District, a mangosteen production center of West Sumatra Province. A factorial experiment in a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications was used. The first factor was irrigation (with or without irrigation) and the second factor was fertilizer (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, NPK+Ca1 (1000 g Urea + 500 g SP-36 + 1000 g KCl + 1000 g CaCO3), NPK+Ca2 (1000 g Urea + 500 g SP-36 + 1000 g KCl + 1500 g CaCO3), NPK+Mg+Ca1 and NPK+Mg+Ca2. Continuous drip irrigation was applied from flowering until harvest. Fertilizer was applied at the early flowering stage. There was an interaction between application of drip irrigation and fertilization on percentage of fruit with yellow latex in the fruit endocarp. Continuous drip irrigation reduced the percentage of fruit with yellow latex on the exocarp and significantly increased the percentage of fruit free from yellow latex. Application of fertilizer was able to reduce yellow latex in the fruit endocarp, with the NPK+Ca2 treatment giving the best result. © 2013 ISHS.

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