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Herwina H.,Andalas University | Nasir N.,Andalas University | Jumjunidang,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Yaherwandi,Andalas University
Asian Myrmecology | Year: 2013

A brief study on ant species on banana plants with Banana Bunchy-top Virus (BBTV) symptoms was conducted by direct collection in four regencies and one city of West Sumatra Province in Indonesia. During the sampling we found 39 banana plants with BBTV symptoms, of which36 were occupied by insects, and of these 35 plants contained ants. A total of 24 species of ants, belonging to 16 genera, were collected. Myrmicinae was the subfamily with the highest number of species (11), followed by Formicinae (seven) and Dolichoderinae (six). Tetramorium and Technomyrmex were the genera with the most species (four). Dolichoderus thoracicus was found most frequently among samples, accounting for16% of species occurrences, followed by Tapinoma melanocephalum and Paratrechina longicornis (11 and 10% respectively). Seventeen species of ants were found associated with aphids of which six showed a statistically-significant association, while seven ant species were not observed with trophobionts. Species that were found more often associated with aphids were found more frequently during the study. © Henny Herwina, Nasril Nasir, Jumjunidang and Yaherwandi.

Daniells J.W.,Economic Development and Innovation | O'Neill W.T.,Economic Development and Innovation | Hermanto C.,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Ploetz R.C.,University of Florida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Genetically related populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) are defined by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). In 2006, the Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (Qld DEEDI), the Indonesian government and Bioversity International commenced an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project which included a study of the geographical distribution of Foc in Indonesia. Relationships that existed between different banana varieties and Foc VCGs were also assessed. We consulted two global databases that contain records of Foc disease samples: the Qld DEEDI database and that maintained at the University of Florida in Homestead. Information from these sources suggested that: (i) Most varieties are susceptible to tropical race 4 (TR4) (VCG 01213); (ii) 'Gros Michel' (AAA), 'Silk' (AAB) and 'Saba' (ABB) are each susceptible to several VCGs; (iii) Some varieties tend to have certain VCGs associated with them; and (iv) 'Sucrier' (AA) and 'Lakatan' (AAA) are only affected by TR4. Although a greater understanding of these relationships would require pathogenicity studies with representative isolates of the different VCGs, these observations reinforce prior concerns over VCG 01213 and its continued spread in Asia. Future collections of this pathogen should be accompanied by photos of the sample plant to ensure that varieties are identified correctly.

Santoso P.J.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Santoso P.J.,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Aryantha I.N.P.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Pancoro A.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Suhandono S.,Bandung Institute of Technology
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Phytophthora and Pythium are reported as pathogen causing tree-decline to durian. Survey relating to their diversity and distribution in Indonesia is very limited. A research to identify their molecular, morphological characteristic and distribution was undertaken from 2011 to 2014. Molecular identification was based on ITS-nrDNA sequences. Morphological characteristics observed were colony motif, shape and sporangium size. A total of 36 isolates were successfully baited from 32 durian fields represent of 17 provinces in Indonesia. Based on ITS-nrDNA sequences, the isolates correspond to six Pythiaceae species, namely Pythium cucurbitacearum, Pythium vexans, Pythium sp. D37, Pythium deliense, Phytophthora cinnamomi var., parvispora and Phytophthora palmivora. These species demonstrated the diversity of Pythiaceae associated with durian in Indonesia. The diversity was also confirmed by the morphological characteristics such as colony motif, shape and sporangium size. Pythium cucurbitacearum were found in 13 (76.5%) provinces and Pythium vexans were in 10 (58.8%). The findings concerning the distribution of both pathogens are indicating that these two species could be more dangerous than Phytophthora palmivora. This is the first time; Pythium cucurbitacearum, Pythium sp., D37, Pythium deliense, Phytophthora cinnamomi var., parvispora reported their association with durian. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Nofiarli,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Anwar K.,Andalas University | Hazli N.,Andalas University
WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine | Year: 2014

The research was conducted in the Pilot Plant Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in October 2008 to February 2009. The research objective was to know biodiesel characteristic of kepayang seed oil. The biodiesel was made in two steps i.e., esterification process and transesterification. Physicochemical characteristic of the biodiesel were yield, viscosity, density, acid number, Iod number, saponification number, gliserol number, and ester content. Biodiesel from kepayang oil toward to viscosity, density, acid number, iod number, soup number, gliserol number, and ester content was full fill ASTM biodiesel quality. The result shown that kepayang biodiesel can be used for diesel engine to substitute the petro diesel.

Mansyah E.,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Muas I.,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Jawal A.S.M.,Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute | Sobir,Bogor Agricultural University
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2010

Indonesia is one of the most important mangosteen producing countries whose the growing areas are scattered on almost all of the islands. Mangosteen variability was observed based on field expeditions from 1992 to 2005. The data were collected on morphological observations on mangosteen production centres in West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, Bangka/Belitung, West Java, Central Java, and East Java based on a total number of 192 mangosteen trees. The objectives of the research were to find out the variability of Indonesian mangosteen based on the morphological characters and to determine the morphological characters that can be used to distinguish mangosteen accessions. Leaves and mature fruits were observed for morphological variations. The results show that mangosteens vary in their morphological appearances. Among the morphological variations obtained, there are 11 specific characters that can be used to distinguish the apomictic mangosteen. These characters are canopy shape, mature leaf colour, number of flowers and fruits per cluster, pedicel length, fruit shape, fruit-base shape, stigma lobe shape, size, and thickness, the number of fruit segments, and rind thickness. Based on the morphological characters the mangosteen in Sumatra and Java can be divided into seven kinds. This information will be useful for researchers and will make the task of the curators easier in the area of mangosteen germplasm evaluation.

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