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Goebel F.-R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Achadian E.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | McGuire P.,New South Wales Sugar Milling Co operative Ltd
Sugar Tech | Year: 2014

Two years of field experiments were conducted in Indonesia (East Java) to investigate damage levels and economic impact of three major sugarcane moth borers Chilo sacchariphagus, C. auricilius and Scirpophagaexcerptalis. To collect such information, we created different levels of borer damage by comparing treated (biocontrol vs. insecticide applications) and untreated plots with natural infestation. In the plant cane experiment, damage levels in untreated plots were the highest with an average of 14.5 % internodes bored by Chilo spp. and 15.8 % stalks damaged by S. excerptalis. In comparison, the best treatment obtained with insecticides had only 4.6 and 3.8 % damage level respectively, followed by plots treated with Trichogramma releases. The untreated plots had lower sucrose yield, higher fibre content and lower cane yield than all treated plots, which represents a loss in cane yield of 45.4 t/ha (−34 %). In the ratoon crop, both yields and the percent of damaged stalks were lower (9.5 % by top borer and 40 % by stem borers) and the yield reduction in biomass was estimated at 12.5 t/ha (19.2 %). In the situation of high infestation as observed in the plant crop, stalk height and other parameters were affected, particularly when damaged by S. excerptalis. For this borer, the weight loss per stalk was estimated at 40.8 % compared to 15 % from stemborer damage (2.7 times less). Using these figures, the overall economic impact was calculated, knowing the relationship between weighted borer damage and sucrose yield in plant cane, the cost of applications and the net value per tonne of extra sugar. Therefore, a damage threshold can be applied to trigger control strategies. © 2013, Society for Sugar Research & Promotion. Source

Sallam N.,BSES Ltd | Achadian E.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Kristini A.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Sochib M.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Adi H.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 2010, ASSCT 2010 | Year: 2010

SUGARCANE moth borers were surveyed on 931 farms across Java, Indonesia in 2008-09. Five moth borer species caused varying levels of damage to sugarcane plantations: Chilo auricilius, C. sacchariphagus, Scirpophaga excerptalis, Sesamia inferens and Tetramoera schistaceana. The first three were the most abundant. All five species caused 'dead hearts' in sugarcane, with S. excerptalis (top borer) being responsible for the majority of dead heart symptoms in both young and mature cane. Chilo species (stalk borers) cause dead hearts only in young cane and later tunnel inside cane stalks and damage the internodes. Farms managed by sugar factories suffered more S. excerptalis dead hearts than those managed by individual growers. This may be the result of crop diversification and shorter crop cycles practiced by individual farmers. In addition, S. excerptalis dead heart symptoms were more common in older ratoons, indicating progressive build up of infestation in older crops. C. sacchariphagus was more widespread in Java than C. auricilius, with the former species preferring irrigated areas while C. auricilius was more abundant in drier areas. S. excerptalis was equally abundant in both irrigated and rainfall areas. Parasitoid species recovered were Cotesia flavipes from C. sacchariphagus, Diatraeophaga striatalis from both Chilo species, and Rhaconotus roslinensis, R. scirpophagae, Stenobracon sp., Elasmus sp. and Isotima sp from S. excerptalis. All moth borers have a high potential of colonising sugarcane in Australia, especially in central and north Queensland where climatic conditions are similar to conditions in their area of origin. Knowledge of the distribution and dynamics of these pests is essential to the development of sound Incursion Management Plans to ensure better preparedness for any incursion into Australia. Source

Magarey R.C.,BSES Ltd | Kristini A.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Sallam N.,BSES Ltd | Achadian E.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
34th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 2012, ASSCT 2012 | Year: 2012

THE INDONESIAN SUGARCANE industry in Java is affected by a number of moth borers that very substantially reduce the productivity of commercial crops and sugarcane streak mosaic virus has recently been identified in the Indonesian sugarcane industry. The Australian sugarcane industry is currently free of major moth borer species, though on a world stage moth borers are extremely destructive and difficult to control. During the last four years, BSES scientists have been collaborating with Indonesian experts to research Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to provide more effective moth borer control. The research has principally focussed on specific parasitoids (mainly Trichogramma species) and mass-release strategies for control of species of Scirpophaga and Chilo. Recent work has enabled more effective treatments to be identified. Other research has investigated sugarcane streak mosaic and canegrub management. A vector for sugarcane streak mosaic virus (brown aphid) has been identified and other forms of transmission investigated. The paper outlines a broad range of activities encompassed in this work and complements a paper focusing on extension outcomes in the Indonesian industry. Source

Magarey R.C.,BSES Ltd | Kristini A.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Sallam N.,BSES Ltd | Samson P.R.,BSES Ltd | And 5 more authors.
32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 2010, ASSCT 2010 | Year: 2010

ACIAR is funding research and extension activities in Indonesia to assist with the development of IPM strategies for Indonesian pests and diseases. Various borer species provide some of the greatest threats to Australia's sugarcane production system; research in Indonesia will lead to the development of Australian expertise in symptom recognition and an understanding of how to control these pests. Research is also being conducted into the various forms of sugarcane mosaic present not just in Indonesia but elsewhere in South East Asia. Incursion management plans will be updated as control measures are further refined during the course of these studies. General surveys conducted in over 930 individual Indonesian sugarcane crops highlighted the incidence of pests and diseases of significance. Further research is being conducted into the vectors transmitting mosaic and yield losses associated with this disease. Research is also being conducted into biological control measures for borers (Chilo or Scirpophaga species) using a range of either egg, larval or pupal parasitoids. Extension activities include demonstration plots, champion farmers, an Indonesian pest and disease field guide and various training days for farmers and factory field staff. This paper describes the work being undertaken and some of the latest outputs. Source

Putra L.K.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Kristini A.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Achadian E.M.,Indonesian Sugar Research Institute | Damayanti T.A.,Bogor Agricultural University
Sugar Tech | Year: 2014

Streak mosaic is a new disease of sugarcane in Indonesia caused by Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV). An extensive survey conducted during milling season 2008/2009 at 30 sugar factories (SF) across the Java revealed that about 30 % of observed sugarcane fields of 28 SF were affected by the streak mosaic disease. Most commercial cane cultivars were infected by the virus but the cultivar PS 864 was found most susceptible. RT-PCR detection, using SCSMV coat protein specific gene primers SCSMV-cpF and SCSMV AP3, successfully amplified a 500 bp DNA fragment, suggesting the positive identity of the SCSMV with all the tested symptomatic samples. Protein analysis of the virus confirmed that SCSMV has a coat protein of size approximately 40 kDa and flexuous, filamentous particles about 890 nm in length was observed under an electron microscope. The virus was easily transmitted by infected cane cuttings and mechanically by sap inoculation and cutting knife. Host range test on 23 plant species revealed that maize, sorghum and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were alternative hosts of SCSMV. A preliminary yield loss assessment on PS 864 cultivar revealed that the disease incidence at ≥50 % reduced sugar yield by about 20 %. Hot water treatment of cane cuttings was not able to eliminate the virus in cane stalks but only postponed the appearance of the symptom. Response of 16 commercial cane cultivars to artificially inoculation of SCSMV using an abrasive pad rubbing technique showed that only five cultivars were resistant to the disease. © 2013, Society for Sugar Research & Promotion. Source

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