Indonesian Soil Research Institute

Cimanggu Wetan, Indonesia

Indonesian Soil Research Institute

Cimanggu Wetan, Indonesia
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Verbist B.,Geo Institute | Poesen J.,Geo Institute | van Noordwijk M.,ICRAF SEA | Widianto,Brawijaya University | And 3 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2010

Tropical deforestation and land use change is often perceived as the major cause of soil loss by water erosion and of sediment load in rivers that has a negative impact on the functioning of hydropower storage reservoirs. The Sumberjaya area in Sumatra, Indonesia is representative for conflicts and evictions arising from this perception. The purpose of this study as part of a Negotiation Support System approach was to assess sediment yield both at plot and catchment scale and to relate it to a variety of possible clarifying factors i.e. land use, geology, soil and topography. Sediment yield at catchment scale per unit area, was found to be 3-10 times higher than soil loss measured in erosion plots. A stepwise regression showed that the dominant factors explaining sediment yield differences at catchment scale in this volcanic landscape were a particular lithology (Old Andesites) and slope angle followed by the silt fraction of the top soil. In lithologically sensitive areas soil loss at the plot scale under monoculture coffee gardens decreases over time from on average 7-11 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1 to 4-6 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1, mainly because of the development of surface litter layers as filters and top soil compaction in the areas without litter, but remains higher than under shade coffee systems or forest. The runoff coefficient under monoculture coffee remains on average significantly higher (10-15%) than under forest (4%) or under shade coffee systems (4-7%). In lithologically stable areas soil loss remained below 1.8 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1 and the runoff coefficient below 2.5% under all land use types, even bare soil plots or monoculture coffee gardens. Less than 20% of the catchment area produces almost 60% of the sediment yield. The reduction of negative off-site effects on e.g. the life time of a storage reservoir would benefit greatly from an improved assessment of the lithologies in volcanic landscapes and the consideration of potential sediment source and sink areas. In lithologically sensitive areas, a shift from sun to shade coffee systems may result in reducing surface runoff and soil loss, although water erosion at the plot scale is not the main contributor to sediment yield at the catchment scale. The quantification of land use effects on dominant erosive processes such as river bank and river bed erosion, landslides and the concentrated flow erosion on footpaths and roads can contribute to more targeted efforts and relevant incentives to reduce (or live with) sediment load of the rivers. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maswar,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Soelaeman Y.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
Agrivita | Year: 2016

An effort to increase the yield and reduce carbon loss from maize farming practices on Ultisols largely depend on fertilizer inputs and in situ crop residual management. The experiment aimed to estimate yields, biomass production and carbon dynamics of several management fertilization on maize farming practice on Ultisols has been conducted from March to July 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm, East Lampung. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete blockdesign, consisted of 6 treatments namely: 5 t ha-1 of cattle manure, 5 t ha-1 of dried sludge manure, and its combination with 200 kg urea ha-1 + 125 kg SP36 ha-1-1 + 50 kg KCl ha-1 (50% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers “RDIF”) and 75% of RDIF. The experimental results revealed that application of combined organic with inorganic fertilizers increased the biomass production, carbon fixation, and grain yield significantly. More than 50% of produced biomass and fixed carbon (grain, maize cob, maize husk, stems and leaves) were removed from maize farming. The use of organic fertilizer combined with NPK fertilizer at 50% of RDIF can be applied to increase the biomass production, organic carbon fixation and maize grain yield in sustainable ways. © 2016, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

McLeod M.K.,Tamworth Agricultural Institute | Slavich P.G.,Tamworth Agricultural Institute | Irhas Y.,Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology | Moore N.,Tamworth Agricultural Institute | And 5 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inundated about 37,500 ha of coastal farmland in Aceh, and crops planted after the tsunami were severely affected by soil salinity. This paper describes the changes of soil salinity over time on tsunami affected farms and the implications for resuming crop production after natural disasters. Soil salinity and salt leaching processes were assessed across the tsunami affected region by measuring soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using an electromagnetic induction soil conductivity instrument (EM38) combined with limited soil analysis. The ECa was measured 5 times between August 2005 and December 2007 in both the vertical (EMv) and horizontal (EMh) dipole orientations at 23 sites across Aceh. The level of salinity and direction of salt movement were assessed by comparing changes in mean profile ECa and relative changes in EMv and EMh. Eight months after the tsunami the average soil salinity in the 0-1.2 m soil depth varied from ECe 22.6 to 1.6 dS m-1 across sites in the affected region and three years after the tsunami it varied from 13.0 to 1.4 dS m-1. Soil salinity tended to be higher in rice paddy areas that trapped saline tsunami sediments and held seawater for longer periods. Leaching of salts occurred slowly by both vertical displacement and horizontal movement in surface waters. Hence, soil salinity persisted at a level which could reduce crop production for several years after the 2004 tsunami. High soil salinity persisted three years after the tsunami even though there had been more than 3000-7000 mm of accumulated rainfall to leach salts. The slow leaching is likely to have been due to the loss of functional drainage systems and general low relief of the affected areas. Monitoring of soil salinity with EM38 assisted local agricultural extension agencies to identify sites that were too saline for crops and determine when they were suitable for cropping again. The methodology used in this study could be used after similar disasters where coastal agriculture areas become inundated by seawater from storm surges or future tsunamis. Crown Copyright © 2009.

van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center | Agus F.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Dewi S.,World Agroforestry Center | Purnomo H.,Bogor Agricultural University
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and forestry. The institutional forestry traditions dominated the emergence of the discourse on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) while more holistic perspectives on land-based emissions, including agriculture, found a home in international recognition for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). We tested the hypothesis that, at least for Indonesia, the NAMA framework provides opportunities to resolve issues that REDD+ alone cannot address. We reviewed progress on five major challenges identified in 2007 by the Indonesian Forest Climate Alliance: 1) scope and 'forest' definition; 2) ownership and tenurial rights; 3) multiplicity and interconnectedness of drivers; 4) peatland issues across forest and non-forest land categories; and 5) fairness and efficiency of benefit-distribution mechanisms across conservation, degradation and restoration phases of tree-cover transition. Results indicate that the two policy instruments developed in parallel with competition rather than synergy. Three of the REDD+ challenges can be resolved by treating REDD+ as a subset of the NAMA and national emission reduction plans for Indonesia. We conclude that two issues, rights and benefit distribution, remain a major challenge, and require progress on a motivational pyramid of policy and polycentric governance. National interest in retaining global palm oil exports gained priority over expectations of REDD forest rents. Genuine concerns over climate change motivate a small but influential part of the ongoing debate. © 2013 The Author(s).

Moeskops B.,Ghent University | Sukristiyonubowo,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Buchan D.,Ghent University | Sleutel S.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2010

We compared the effect of organic and conventional farming practices on soil microbial dynamics in West Java, Indonesia. A secondary forest was included to obtain natural reference values. On the organic farms, soil fertility is maintained mainly with composted organic matter in contrast to conventional farmers who combine fresh manure and chemical fertilizers, and typically apply large amounts of pesticides. Parameters measured were dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase and β-glucosaminidase activity, microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. A strong negative impact of intensive chemical fertilizer and pesticide use on soil enzyme activities was demonstrated. Dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities were correlated with soil organic matter content and pH. β-glucosidase activity under organic management approached that under forest, while MBC and dehydrogenase activity remained higher under forest. The composition of the soil microbial community strongly differed between forest and cultivated soil, a clear difference in composition was also observed between conventional and organic farming. Dehydrogenase activity and C16:1ω5c, marker fatty acid for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, appeared to be particularly suited as indicators of the impact of management on soil quality and on the soil microbial community. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Soelaeman Y.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Maswar,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
Agrivita | Year: 2014

This research was aimed to evaluate the kind and amount of feed consumed by 20 heads of cattle and the amount of manure produced, to evaluate the amount of biogas, sludge and slurry produced by digester and to study the application of manure, dried sludge manure, and NPK fertilization on the growth and yield of hybrid maize of Pioneer 27 (P27). Research was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in Tamanbogo Experimental Farm. Results showed that the total weight of feed consumed in the rainy and the dry season achieved the recommendation of 10% of the body weight of cattle. The average production of manure and urine was 11.25 kg head-1 day-1 with the biogas production of 3 m3 day-1 sufficient for cooking and lighting for 5 members of family daily. The by-product of biogas production was 8 kg day-1 of sludge and 127 L day-1 of slurry. The grain yield of P27 with application of dried sludge accompanied with 50% of NPK fertilizer recommendation dose gave the highest yield of P27 (4.45 t ha-1) with a profit Rp. 3,466,000 ha-1 and B/C of 1.5. © 2014, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

Husen E.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Salma S.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Agus F.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Peat respiration that releases carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere contributes to regional and global change. Aeration associated with soil water content levels controls emission rates, but soil amendments might mitigate respiration. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of various water content levels and laterite application on microbial (heterotrophic) respiration in peat soil. Bulk samples of surface (0-20 cm depth) and subsurface (30-50 cm depth) layers were collected from an oil palm plantation in Riau Province, Indonesia. Peat water content was adjusted to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % water filled pore space (WFPS). Laterite soil (clay containing high Al and Fe oxides) was applied to 3, 6, and 12 mg g-1 dry weight (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 Mg ha-1) peat samples at 60 % and 100 % WFPS. Results showed peat respiration was notably affected by water content, but less affected by laterite application. Peat respiration increased sharply from wet (≥80 % WFPS) to moist soil (60 to 40 % WFPS), and decreased when soil dried (≤40 % WFPS). Laterite as a peat ameliorant accelerated rather than reduced peat respiration, and is therefore not a viable choice for CO2 emissions reduction. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Marwanto S.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Agus F.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux at the soil surface of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations on peatlands typically exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variation, which challenges the derivation of emission factors required in land use discussions. We tested 20 cm surface soil moisture content, and the diurnal patterns in soil and air temperatures as CO2 flux controls during an annual measurement schedule in a 15-year-old oil palm plantation in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 480 CO2 flux measurements were obtained using an Infrared Gas Analyser (IRGA) at six different time intervals each day. Samples were recorded at 20 observation points distributed along four transects located 15, 42, 50, 70, and 84 m from the edge of the drainage canal. Results showed CO2 flux exhibited no relationship to soil and air temperature, however values tended to increase with volumetric soil moisture content; the highest annual flux of 55 Mg ha-1 yr-1 was observed at mid-day, when air temperature was highest, and lowest at dawn when soil and air temperatures were lowest. CO2 flux decreased consistent with distance from the drainage canal, suggesting a higher flux with a deeper water table. This result indicates a shallow water table must be maintained. The annual mean CO2 flux of 46 ± 30 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1 was comparable to other studies, and can be set as a baseline emissions factor for areas with similar land use and peat characteristics. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Dariah A.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Marwanto S.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Agus F.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Measured carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from peat soils using the closed chamber technique combines root-related (autotrophic + heterotrophic where rhizosphere organisms are involved) and peat-based (heterotrophic) respiration. The latter contributes to peat loss while the former is linked to recent CO2 removal through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to separate root- from peat-based respiration. The study was conducted on peatland under 6 and 15 year old oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Jambi Province, Indonesia in 2011 to 2012. CO2 emissions were measured in the field from 25 cm diameter and 25 cm tall closed chambers using an infrared gas analyser. Root sampling and CO2 emissions measurements were at distances of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 m from the centre of the base of the palm tree. The emission rate for the six and 15 year old oil palm plantations at ≥3.0 m from the centre of the tree were 38.2 ± 9.5 and 34.1 ± 15.9 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, respectively. At distances <2.5 m, total respiration linearly decreased with distances from the trees. Heterotrophic respirations were 86% of the 44.7 ± 11.2 and 71% of 47.8 ± 21.3 Mg CO2 ha-1 yr-1 of weighted surface flux, respectively for the 6 and 15 year old plantations. We propose that CO2 flux measurements in oil palm plantations made at a distance of ≥3 m from the tree centre be used to represent the heterotrophic respiration that is relevant for the environmental impact assessment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Husen E.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Agus F.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute
American Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Problem statement: Acceleration of microbial activities and thus of CO 2 emission in drained peat soils used for agriculture, is of the main environmental concern. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine microbial activities in peat samples treated with different levels of water contents and ameliorants and (ii) evaluate the relative contribution of microbial groups to peat respiration. Approach: Surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (30-50 cm) peat samples were collected from Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi Province, Indonesia. Peat samples were categorized as saprist (mature stage), acidic (pH <4.5), low bulk density (<0.12 g cm -3) and high carbon content (C >500 g kg -1). Each peat sample was treated with four different levels of water contents (7-66%, v/v) and four levels of ameliorant applications (without and with 600 kg ha -1 furnace slag and/or lateritic-soil). Another set of peat samples was treated with three different lethal doses of chemical agents to inhibit the growth of selected microbial group (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi). The rate of respiration and the number of individual microbial group population were estimated by alkali absorption method and spread-plate counting technique, respectively. Results: Application of furnace slag and/or lateritic soil at the level of 600 kg ha -1 did not affect peat respiration. However, respiration rates increased as the water content of peat samples increased, namely from 4.23-18.2 μg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in the surface samples and from 6.19-15.84 μg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in the subsurface samples. Bacteria were the dominant microbial group in both samples ranging from 9.39-12.76 log10 cell g -1 and contributed to 82 and 58% of surface and subsurface peat respiration, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial activities, notably bacteria were affected by peat water content and less affected by ameliorants of furnace slag and lateritic soil. Increasing water content up to 66% increased peat respiration, indicating the preference of the microbes to moist condition. © 2011 Science Publications.

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