Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Salak, Indonesia

Indonesian Rubber Research Institute

Salak, Indonesia

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Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Kinasih N.A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

The mechanical properties and swelling behavior of n-pentane through acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) with different acrylonitrile content were studied. In addition to the mechanical and the swelling properties, the curing characteristics and crosslink density were also investigated. The vulcanization kinetic parameters were determined using autocatalytic model. The NBR with 33% acrylonitrile content showed the highest the activation energy. The highest crosslink density was obtained from the NBR with acrylonitrile content 28% and the crosslink density effected to its mechanical properties and swelling behavior. The highest crosslink density exhibited the highest hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break values, the better compression set, the lowest equilibrium n-pentane uptake (Q∞) and the Sorption coefficient (S). The Diffusion coefficient (D) increased with decreasing the acrylonitrile content. © Medwell Journals, 2016.


Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Soegijono B.,University of Indonesia | Budianto E.,University of Indonesia | Ramadhan A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
Macromolecular Symposia | Year: 2015

Summary Rubber nanocomposites based on the natural rubber (NR) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared by melt intercalation technique using a laboratory open mill followed by compression molding. Organically modified organoclays with different d-spacing were added to the natural rubber matrix to examine the influence of d-spacing of organoclay on morphology, curing characteristic and mechanical property of nanocomposite. The characterizations were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron, atomic force microscopy and moving die rheometer. The results show that melt mixing by an open mill is an effective method for dispersing OMMT throughout the natural rubber matrix especially for organoclay cloisite 15A whose d-spacing is high and well dispersed in natural rubber matrix. The hardness and stresses at low strain of NR/organoclay nanocomposites slightly increased with increasing d-spacing of organoclay, but elongation at break decreased. The swelling behavior of NR/organoclay nanocomposite improved with increasing d-spacing of organoclay. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics, Indonesian Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops, Rubber Research Institute and Unite mixte de recherche Amelioration Genetique et Adaptation des Plantes mediterraneennes et tropicales
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.


Piyatrakul P.,Unite Mixte de Rech. Amelioration Genetique et Adaptation des Plantes Mediterraneennes et Tropicales | Piyatrakul P.,Rubber Research Institute | Yang M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | Putranto R.-A.,Unite Mixte de Rech. Amelioration Genetique et Adaptation des Plantes Mediterraneennes et Tropicales | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.


Kuswanhadi,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Leclercq J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rio M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Tregear J.,IRD Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Rubber Research | Year: 2010

Ethylene is a major stimulating factor for natural rubber production in Hevea brasiliensis and is often applied in the form of Ethephon, an ethylene releaser. In a positive feedback type mechanism, the application of ethylene leads to the enhanced expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis such as ACC oxidases, which are also responsive to wounding. We studied the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in rubber trees through the characterisation of the ACC oxidase multigene family and the responses of individual genes to ethylene and wounding. Three full-length cDNAs, HbACOl, HbAC02 and HbAC03, were isolated. The HbACOs were 1115, 1174 and 1074 bp long, respectively, with open reading frames encoding polypeptides of 312, 318 and 318 amino acids, respectively. The genomic sequences of HbACOl andHbkC02 were also characterised, revealing divergent gene structures: HbACOl (1456 bp) possesses three introns andfour exons, while HbAC02 (1418 bp) consists of two introns and three exons. All of the HbACO genes were expressed at all stages of development studied, from in vitro callus to the exploited plant, but with different expression profiles. Nevertheless, no expression was detected in latex. In the bark of the shoot of the first flush of budded plants, HbACOl was expressed at a higher level than the other genes, and was down-regulated by ethylene and wounding in both leaf and bark tissues. In contrast, HbAC02 and HbAC03 were transiently induced in response to ethylene and wounding. Treatment with 1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor, abolished the ethylene induction ofHbAC02 gene, showing that this gene was under positive feedback regulation. The expression of HbAC03 gene was also induced by ethylene treatment and wounding, again with an antagonistic effect of 1-MCP. In conclusion, HbACOl appears to be responsible for basal levels of ethylene production while HbAC02 and HbAC03 are up-regulated in response to external factors.


Fathurrohman M.I.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Maspanger D.R.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Sutrisno S.,Institute of Space Technology
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis | Year: 2015

The vulcanization kinetics of Ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber thermal insulation was studied by using rheometer under isothermal condition at different temperatures. The rheometry analysis was used to determine the cure kinetic parameters and predicting the optimum curing time of EPDM thermal insulation. The experimental results revealed that the curing curves of EPDM thermal insulation were marching and the optimum curing time decreased with the increasing of temperature. The kinetic parameters were determined from the autocatalytic model that showed a close fitting with the experimental results. It also indicated a suitability of autocatalytic model in characterizing the cure kinetics. The optimum curing time was predicted from autocatalytic model and the kinetic pa-rameters were obtained by using the relationship between degree of conversion, cure temperature, and cure time. The predictions of cure time provided information on the actual curing characteristic of EPDM thermal insulation. The mechanical properties of EPDM thermal insulation with different vul-canization temperatures showed the same hardness, tensile strength and modulus at 300%, except at temperature 70 °C, while the elongation at breaking point decreased with the increasing temperature of vul-canization. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.


Rukmayadi D.,Al Kamal Institute of Science and Technology | Marimin,Bogor Agricultural University | Haris U.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Yani M.,Bogor Agricultural University
International Journal of Supply Chain Management | Year: 2016

Green logistic is a logistics model which takes into account the social and environmental aspects, beside the functional and economical aspects. The objectives of this research are design a structural model of rubber agroindustrial green logistic, SIR 20 (Standard Indonesian Rubber 20) process logistic and design of product packaging of SIR 20 produced by crumb rubber agro-industry. This research is use system approach which was supported by ISM (Interpretive Structural Modelling), Green VSM (Value Stream Mapping) and Fuzzy AHP Green QFD (Quality Function Deployment) techniques. These models are important because the model can facilitate further enhancement efficiency and effectiveness, reduction in environmental impact on each business process stage starting from raw materials, production process and product distribution process as to be able to productivity both on planting means and rubber agro-industry levels. The results of ISM analysis showed that in the objectives of elements green logistic model, which are reduce the environmental impacts of rubber agro-industrial business process, improve the quality of packaging design appropriate to consumer expectations and environmentally friendly, as well as an increase institutional performance in the implementation of objectives achievement of the green logistics system. The results of GVSM analysis showed by improving the quality of raw rubber materials (bokar), it can improve the energy usage efficiency by 11%, water usage by 25% and processing time by 2%, therefore the productivity of raw material use increases from 54% to 67%. The analysis results of SIR 20 packaging those consumers want and environmentally friendly factors were ease in packaging products and green packaging materials. Metal packaging material was suggested due to the ease in packaging SIR products and recyclable, while the main weakness was weight and less energy efficient. Based on this attribute a conceptual green logistic model was proposed. © ExcelingTech Pub, UK.


Saputra A.H.,University of Indonesia | Johan,University of Indonesia | Sari T.I.,University of Sriwijaya | Cifriadi A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Technology | Year: 2016

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a type of renewable energy that could replace the use of fossil fuel in Indonesia. Nevertheless, DME can cause degradation of rubber-based materials. Therefore, the performance of rubber that has been degraded by DME must be improved. This research study aims are to determine the degradation characteristics of modified vulcanized natural rubber in a DME environment. The effect of the filler (carbon black) and plasticizer (minarex-B) components of vulcanized natural rubber was examined. The vulcanized rubber samples were comprised of 10, 30, and 60 parts per hundred rubbers (phr) of filler and 0, 10 and 20 phr of plasticizer. The degradation of the mass and mechanical properties of the rubber were investigated. Degradation testing was conducted by immersing the samples inside a pressure vessel that was filled with the liquid phase of DME. The results indicate that the increasing of the filler composition reduces the impact of degradation, while the increasing of the plasticizer composition has the opposite effect. The plasticizer is needed to distribute the filler to all parts of the rubber. Consequently, a filler composition of 30 phr and a plasticizer composition of 10 phr provide a vulcanized natural rubber with optional protection against the degradation caused by DME. The characteristics of natural rubber, as measured by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) proved that DME does not damage the structure of the polymer chains, although DME may react with some ingredients in the rubber that have a similar polarity. © IJTech 2016.


Sari T.I.,University of Indonesia | Saputra A.H.,University of Indonesia | Bismo S.,University of Indonesia | Maspanger D.R.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Cifriadi A.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
International Journal of Technology | Year: 2015

Graft copolymerization of an acrylonitrile monomer onto Deproteinized Natural Rubber (DPNR) is an important process in the modification of Natural Rubber (NR) to increase its oil resistance. However, coagulation at the beginning of the process was a problem causing a copolymerization foil to occur. The presence of a styrene monomer is therefore expected to improve the emulsion condition so that coagulation can be prevented in the early reaction step. For comparison purposes, the processes with and without styrene were investigated. The influence of the concentration of styrene as well as the ratio of the DPNR:monomer on the stabilization process were also observed. The results showed that the addition of styrene could improve the stabilization process as proven by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The presence of the functional group of C≡N at FTIR proved the production of the polyacrylonitrile in the mixture. The investigation showed that the concentration of styrene monomer, which led to the emulsion stability, is up to 1.5 wt% concentration of styrene at the ratio of DPNR:monomer (M) of 70:30 wt%. © IJTech 2015.


Cahyo A.N.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Ardika R.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Saputra J.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute | Wijaya T.,Indonesian Rubber Research Institute
Agrivita | Year: 2014

The best rubber planting materials are needed to build the best rubber plantation. Humic acids could be used to improve the growth of rubber planting materials. Humic acid plays a role as a hormone-like substance. This research was aimed to determine the optimal concentration of foliar application of humic acid in order to enhance the growth of rubber tree planting materials. This research was arranged in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the concentrations of humic acids, i. e. 0; 250; 500; 750; and 1,000 ppm. Observations were made on rubber tree diameter, plant height, shoot and root biomass, and nutrient content of leaves and the stem. The results showed that foliar application of 1,000 ppm of humic acids could enhance the growth of rubber tree planting materials. Foliar application of 500 – 1,000 ppm of humic acids could increase K content of the stem. The effects of foliar application of humic acids were more apparent in the root part than in the shoot part. © 2014, Agriculture Faculty Brawijaya University. All rights reserved.

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