Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production

Ciawi, Indonesia

Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production

Ciawi, Indonesia
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Sumanto,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Brebes District is one of the centre of grazing buffalo in Indonesia that involve thousands of rearers usually kept as a family savings. This paper highlighted the availability of land and the role of the grazing land for the durability of the maintenance of buffalo in Brebes Regency. The information obtained is from interviewed the livestock facilitators in the sub-district (primary data) and from statistic of agriculture in Brebes Regency 2014 (secondary data). Generally the buffalo kept semi-intensively and commonly the buffaloes graze in the fields that are not used from morning until evening and during nights buffaloes are placed in the stalls. Rearers chose the semi-intensive system in rearing the buffalo because it is considered easy to manage and they do not need to provide fresh money to prepare the roughage for feed, because commonly the grazing buffalo are shepherd by herdman that will receive buffalo as their payment. The population density is very high (1.056 heads/km2), the buffalo ownership is between 2-4 head/households; generally the location of the grazing land is in the forest, rice fields fallow, and sleeping land, and estimated that greenfeed stock is still available abunandtly, on the other hand the urban land is less capacity of feed. The spread of buffalo is only in 125 villages from 297 villages in Brebes. The acceptance of buffalo business is around IDR 3.5 million to IDR 7.5 million/family/year. The availability of grazing land strongly influence the maintaining of buffalo farming by rearers. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Sumanto,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

This research was conducted in the sub-district of Takisung, district of Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan Province in 2012. This paper was aimed to know the farming performance of the Bali Cattle rearing system in the transmigration area reared by the transmigrant groups of Harapan Makmur, Sumber Rejeki, Tunas Muda and Darmarwulan, that were selected using purposive sampling as the primary data. The agroecosystem that supported the area consisted of palm oil, rubber and agricultural land. Secondary data was obtained from province agriculture officer and district livestock officer. The results of the study showed that the benefits of calf crop beef cattle rearing system (traditional breeding system) in the group of Harapan Makmur was around IDR 5,295,200/year with B/C ratio of 1.28, whereas the value of the benefits of the group of Tunas Muda was around IDR 4,105,800/year with B/C ratio of 1.22. The value of the benefit of feedlot cattle rearing system in the groups of Sumber Rejeki was around IDR 2,110,000/3 months with B/C ratio of 1.07 and the value of the benefits of the group of Damarwulan was around IDR 5,760,000/3 months with B/C ratio of 1.09. Land resource and source of manpower strongly supported the development of cattle farming with the ownership of 2-4 head/family, both the cows and the bull are very economical, effective and efficient in those business so that would benefit to the farmers group. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Decker J.E.,University of Missouri | McKay S.D.,University of Vermont | Rolf M.M.,Oklahoma State University | Kim J.W.,University of Missouri | And 16 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. © 2014.

Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Soliva C.R.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to elucidate relationships among various phenolic fractions in, and methane (CH4) emissions from, tropical plants when incubated in ruminal fluid in vitro. As a second objective, principal component analysis (PCA) was tested for its utility in screening plants for their ability to reduce CH4 formation at simultaneously acceptable nutritional quality. Leaves from 27 tropical plants were analyzed for their nutritional composition and various phenolic fractions. They were incubated in vitro using the Hohenheim gas test method. Variables measured after 24h of incubation were total gas and CH4 production, and pH, ammonia, bacterial and protozoal counts, as well as short-chain fatty acids in the incubation fluid. In vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility was computed by a standard equation. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance, correlation, regression and PCA. Among phenolic fractions, total phenols had the closest relationship with CH4/digestible OM (r=-0.84, P<0.001). The total tannin fraction contributed strongly to this effect (r=-0.74, P<0.001) whereas the non-tannin phenol fraction was less important (r=-0.45, P<0.05). Methane reduction by the influence of non-tannin phenols was not associated with a negative effect on protein degradation, while this was the case with tannins. Condensed (r=-0.60, P<0.01) and hydrolysable tannins (r=-0.60, P<0.01) contributed to the decrease in CH4/digestible OM. The loading plot of PCA showed that dietary crude protein (CP) content and incubation fluid ammonia, total short-chain fatty acids, propionate, valerate, iso-butyrate, iso-valerate as well as in vitro OM digestibility were clustered. They had inverse directions to contents of fiber fractions and incubation fluid acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio. The methane-to-total-gas ratio had the opposite effect of the contents of any phenolic fraction. Plants possessing a favorable forage quality, based on the corresponding PCA score plot, were Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, Morinda citrifolia, Sesbania grandiflora and Melia azedarach, whereas CH4 mitigating plants included Swietenia mahagoni, Acacia villosa, Eugenia aquea, Myristica fragrans and Clidemia hirta. All phenolic fractions studied reduced CH4 emissions from in vitro incubations with ruminal fluid and PCA seems useful to screen plants for high nutritional quality and low ruminal CH4 formation. However, high forage quality seemed to be partially associated with high CH4 emission. The search for plants rich in non-tannin phenols might be promising as these compounds appear to decrease CH4 while they obviously have less negative effect on protein degradation as compared to the tannin fractions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Marquardt S.,ETH Zurich | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Feeding plants containing elevated levels of polyphenols may reduce ruminal CH4 emissions, but at the expense of nutrient utilisation. There might, however, be non-additive effects when combining high-phenolic plants with well-digestible, high-nutrient feeds. To test whether non-additive effects exist, the leaves of Carica papaya (high in dietary quality, low in polyphenols), Clidemia hirta (high in hydrolysable tannins), Swietenia mahagoni (high in condensed tannins) and Eugenia aquea (high in non-tannin phenolics) were tested alone and in all possible mixtures (n 15 treatments). An amount of 200Â mg DM of samples was incubated in vitro (24Â h; 39 oC) with buffered rumen fluid using the Hohenheim gas test apparatus. After the incubation, total gas production, CH4 concentration and fermentation profiles were determined. The levels of absolute CH4, and CH4:SCFA and CH4:total gas ratios were lower (P<Â 0·05) when incubating a combination of C. papaya and any high-phenolic plants (C. hirta, S. mahagoni and E. aquea) than when incubating C. papaya alone. Additionally, mixtures resulted in non-additive effects for all CH4-related parameters of the order of 2-15Â % deviation from the expected value (P<Â 0·01). This means that, by combining these plants, CH4 in relation to the fermentative capacity was lower than that predicted when assuming the linearity of the effects. Similar non-additive effects of combining C. papaya with the other plants were found for NH3 concentrations but not for SCFA concentrations. In conclusion, using mixtures of high-quality plants and high-phenolic plants could be one approach to CH4 mitigation; however, this awaits in vivo confirmation. © 2012 The Authors.

Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Kreuzer M.,ETH Zurich | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Leiber F.,ETH Zurich
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of phenol-rich tropical ruminant feeds on the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Samples of 27 tropical forages (mainly tree and shrub leaves), characterised by different phenolic profiles, were incubated in vitro (n ≤ 4 replicates) with buffered rumen fluid for 24 h using the Hohenheim gas test method. Linseed oil was added as a rich source of PUFA. In the plants, total extractable phenols (TEP), non-tannin phenols, condensed tannins, and fatty acids were determined. After terminating incubation, the fatty acid profile present in fermentation fluid (total syringe content) was analysed by gas chromatography. The relationship between TEP and the disappearance of-linolenic acid from the incubation fluid was negative (R 2 ≤ 0.48, P<0.001), indicating that TEP reduced the ruminal BH of this PUFA. Similarly, TEP were negatively related with the disappearances of linoleic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.52, P<0.001) and oleic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.58, P<0.001). The appearance of rumenic acid, an important conjugated linoleic acid isomer, was positively correlated with TEP (R 2 ≤ 0.30, P<0.01), while the opposite result was seen with stearic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.22, P<0.05). Leaves of avocado (Persea americana) were particularly interesting, because they changed the BH pattern at a moderate TEP content of 73 g/kg DM. It is concluded that, in the tropical feedstuffs investigated, TEP have an impact on ruminal fatty acid BH and are associated with an increased bypass of PUFA and the generation of conjugated linoleic acid. © 2011 CSIRO.

Purwani E.Y.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development | Purwani E.Y.,Bogor Agricultural University | Purwadaria T.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Suhartono M.T.,Bogor Agricultural University
Anaerobe | Year: 2012

Resistant starch type 3 (RS3) is retrograded starch which is not digested by human starch degrading enzyme, and will thus undergo bacterial degradation in the colon. The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA has significant benefit impact on the metabolism of the host. The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3. RS3 was made from sago or rice starch treated with amylase, pullulanase and the combination of amylase and pullulanase. Fermentation study was performed by using Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629, which has been identified as capable of degradation of starch residue and also regarded as beneficial bacteria. Experimental result revealed that enzyme hydrolysis of retrograded sago or rice starch was beneficial to RS formation. RS3 derived from sago contained higher RS (31-38%) than those derived from rice starch (21-26%). This study indicated that C. butyricum BCC B2571 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1, when the medium was supplemented with RSSA at concentration 1%. In the medium containing similar substrate, E. rectale DSM 17629 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.7 : 1 : 1.2. High levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1.1 was also produced by E. rectale DSM 17629 in medium supplemented with RSSP at concentration 1%. The results showed that both bacteria responded differently to the RS3 supplementation. Such result provided insight into the possibility of designing RS3 as prebiotic with featured regarding SCFA released in the human colon with potential health implication. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Amalianingsih T.I.,Bogor Agricultural University | Brahmantiyo B.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Jakaria,Bogor Agricultural University
Media Peternakan | Year: 2014

Identification of genes in rabbits correlated to economic traits were intended to improve and develop their genetic quality. The objective of this research was to analyze the variability of growth hormone gene (GH) in three rabbit breeds, i.e. Rex, Satin, and Reza (Rex and Satin crosses) then was associated with ultrasound imaging of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. Identification of the variability of growth hormone gene was analyzed using PCR RFLP technique from blood samples of 33 mature male rabbits in Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP). Thickness of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat were imaged and measured by using ultrasound unit at 2nd to 3rd lumbar vertebrae in the left body side. PCR product of GH gene fragment (231 base pair/bp) was digested with restriction enzyme Bsh1236I. PCR-RFLP patterns were allele T resulted in an undigested fragment of 231 bp; allele C resulted in fragment of 169 bp and 62 bp. The result showed that Bsh1236I GH gene had three genotypes, i.e. CC, TT, and CT. There were signifficant association of Longissimus dorsi muscle thickness between rabbit breed (P<0.05). There was no significant association between GH Bsh1236I gene polymorphism and imaging ultrasound of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. The association of characteristic genotype of GH|Bsh1236I gene with measurement phenotype was not significant, however it had potency as marker assisted selection (MAS).

Haryati T.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Susanti T.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Susana I.W.R.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted to increase the quality of rice bran by fermentation using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and humic substances and its utilization as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out in two steps. First, the fermentation process was done using a completely randomized design in factorial with 16 treatments: i) Dosage of B.amyloliquefaciens (2.108 cfu/g), 10 and 20 g/kg; ii) Graded levels of humic substances, 0, 100, 200, and 400 ppm; iii) Length of fermentation, three and five days. The results showed that the fermentation significantly (p<0.05) reduced crude fiber content. The recommended conditions for fermentation of rice bran: 20 g/kg dosage of inoculums B. amyloliquefaciens, 100 level of humic substances and three days fermentation period. The second step was a feeding trial to evaluate the fermented rice bran (FRB) as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Three hundred and seventy-five one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatment diets. Arrangement of the diets as follows: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% level of FRB and the diets formulation based on equal amounts of energy and protein. The results showed that 15% inclusion of FRB in the diet provided the best bodyweight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. In conclusion, the nutrient content of rice bran improved after fermentation and the utilization of FRB as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens could be included up to 15% of the broiler diet. Copyright © 2015 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

PubMed | Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2016

The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism.The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60% in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control) and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.813.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition.All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p>0.05) among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p<0.05) on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4% fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00% and 24.67%, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk composition percentage and milk constituent yields improved significantly (p<0.05) in those supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride.The supplementation of 4 g/2days of choline chloride through forced drinking increased milk yields, the 4% fat corrected milk yields, milk composition, milk constituent yields, and improved feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost of Etawah Grade goats.

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