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Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Soliva C.R.,ETH Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to elucidate relationships among various phenolic fractions in, and methane (CH4) emissions from, tropical plants when incubated in ruminal fluid in vitro. As a second objective, principal component analysis (PCA) was tested for its utility in screening plants for their ability to reduce CH4 formation at simultaneously acceptable nutritional quality. Leaves from 27 tropical plants were analyzed for their nutritional composition and various phenolic fractions. They were incubated in vitro using the Hohenheim gas test method. Variables measured after 24h of incubation were total gas and CH4 production, and pH, ammonia, bacterial and protozoal counts, as well as short-chain fatty acids in the incubation fluid. In vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility was computed by a standard equation. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance, correlation, regression and PCA. Among phenolic fractions, total phenols had the closest relationship with CH4/digestible OM (r=-0.84, P<0.001). The total tannin fraction contributed strongly to this effect (r=-0.74, P<0.001) whereas the non-tannin phenol fraction was less important (r=-0.45, P<0.05). Methane reduction by the influence of non-tannin phenols was not associated with a negative effect on protein degradation, while this was the case with tannins. Condensed (r=-0.60, P<0.01) and hydrolysable tannins (r=-0.60, P<0.01) contributed to the decrease in CH4/digestible OM. The loading plot of PCA showed that dietary crude protein (CP) content and incubation fluid ammonia, total short-chain fatty acids, propionate, valerate, iso-butyrate, iso-valerate as well as in vitro OM digestibility were clustered. They had inverse directions to contents of fiber fractions and incubation fluid acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio. The methane-to-total-gas ratio had the opposite effect of the contents of any phenolic fraction. Plants possessing a favorable forage quality, based on the corresponding PCA score plot, were Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, Morinda citrifolia, Sesbania grandiflora and Melia azedarach, whereas CH4 mitigating plants included Swietenia mahagoni, Acacia villosa, Eugenia aquea, Myristica fragrans and Clidemia hirta. All phenolic fractions studied reduced CH4 emissions from in vitro incubations with ruminal fluid and PCA seems useful to screen plants for high nutritional quality and low ruminal CH4 formation. However, high forage quality seemed to be partially associated with high CH4 emission. The search for plants rich in non-tannin phenols might be promising as these compounds appear to decrease CH4 while they obviously have less negative effect on protein degradation as compared to the tannin fractions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Decker J.E.,University of Missouri | McKay S.D.,University of Vermont | Rolf M.M.,Oklahoma State University | Kim J.W.,University of Missouri | And 16 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. © 2014.

Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Kreuzer M.,ETH Zurich | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Leiber F.,ETH Zurich
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of phenol-rich tropical ruminant feeds on the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Samples of 27 tropical forages (mainly tree and shrub leaves), characterised by different phenolic profiles, were incubated in vitro (n ≤ 4 replicates) with buffered rumen fluid for 24 h using the Hohenheim gas test method. Linseed oil was added as a rich source of PUFA. In the plants, total extractable phenols (TEP), non-tannin phenols, condensed tannins, and fatty acids were determined. After terminating incubation, the fatty acid profile present in fermentation fluid (total syringe content) was analysed by gas chromatography. The relationship between TEP and the disappearance of-linolenic acid from the incubation fluid was negative (R 2 ≤ 0.48, P<0.001), indicating that TEP reduced the ruminal BH of this PUFA. Similarly, TEP were negatively related with the disappearances of linoleic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.52, P<0.001) and oleic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.58, P<0.001). The appearance of rumenic acid, an important conjugated linoleic acid isomer, was positively correlated with TEP (R 2 ≤ 0.30, P<0.01), while the opposite result was seen with stearic acid (R 2 ≤ 0.22, P<0.05). Leaves of avocado (Persea americana) were particularly interesting, because they changed the BH pattern at a moderate TEP content of 73 g/kg DM. It is concluded that, in the tropical feedstuffs investigated, TEP have an impact on ruminal fatty acid BH and are associated with an increased bypass of PUFA and the generation of conjugated linoleic acid. © 2011 CSIRO.

Jayanegara A.,ETH Zurich | Jayanegara A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Marquardt S.,ETH Zurich | Wina E.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Feeding plants containing elevated levels of polyphenols may reduce ruminal CH4 emissions, but at the expense of nutrient utilisation. There might, however, be non-additive effects when combining high-phenolic plants with well-digestible, high-nutrient feeds. To test whether non-additive effects exist, the leaves of Carica papaya (high in dietary quality, low in polyphenols), Clidemia hirta (high in hydrolysable tannins), Swietenia mahagoni (high in condensed tannins) and Eugenia aquea (high in non-tannin phenolics) were tested alone and in all possible mixtures (n 15 treatments). An amount of 200Â mg DM of samples was incubated in vitro (24Â h; 39 oC) with buffered rumen fluid using the Hohenheim gas test apparatus. After the incubation, total gas production, CH4 concentration and fermentation profiles were determined. The levels of absolute CH4, and CH4:SCFA and CH4:total gas ratios were lower (P<Â 0·05) when incubating a combination of C. papaya and any high-phenolic plants (C. hirta, S. mahagoni and E. aquea) than when incubating C. papaya alone. Additionally, mixtures resulted in non-additive effects for all CH4-related parameters of the order of 2-15Â % deviation from the expected value (P<Â 0·01). This means that, by combining these plants, CH4 in relation to the fermentative capacity was lower than that predicted when assuming the linearity of the effects. Similar non-additive effects of combining C. papaya with the other plants were found for NH3 concentrations but not for SCFA concentrations. In conclusion, using mixtures of high-quality plants and high-phenolic plants could be one approach to CH4 mitigation; however, this awaits in vivo confirmation. © 2012 The Authors.

Purwani E.Y.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development | Purwani E.Y.,Bogor Agricultural University | Purwadaria T.,Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production | Suhartono M.T.,Bogor Agricultural University
Anaerobe | Year: 2012

Resistant starch type 3 (RS3) is retrograded starch which is not digested by human starch degrading enzyme, and will thus undergo bacterial degradation in the colon. The main fermentation products are the Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA): acetate, propionate and butyrate. SCFA has significant benefit impact on the metabolism of the host. The objectives of this research were to study the SCFA profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing RS3. RS3 was made from sago or rice starch treated with amylase, pullulanase and the combination of amylase and pullulanase. Fermentation study was performed by using Clostridium butyricum BCC B2571 or Eubacterium rectale DSM 17629, which has been identified as capable of degradation of starch residue and also regarded as beneficial bacteria. Experimental result revealed that enzyme hydrolysis of retrograded sago or rice starch was beneficial to RS formation. RS3 derived from sago contained higher RS (31-38%) than those derived from rice starch (21-26%). This study indicated that C. butyricum BCC B2571 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1, when the medium was supplemented with RSSA at concentration 1%. In the medium containing similar substrate, E. rectale DSM 17629 produced acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.7 : 1 : 1.2. High levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate at molar ratio of 1.8 : 1 : 1.1 was also produced by E. rectale DSM 17629 in medium supplemented with RSSP at concentration 1%. The results showed that both bacteria responded differently to the RS3 supplementation. Such result provided insight into the possibility of designing RS3 as prebiotic with featured regarding SCFA released in the human colon with potential health implication. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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