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Winarto B.,Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute | da Silva J.A.T.,P. O. Box 7
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant

To improve the micropropagation of Dendrobium ‘Gradita 31’, coconut water (CW) and fertilizer media were used to enhance growth, proliferation, and germination of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). PLBs formed when shoots approximately 0.4 cm long were cultured on semi-solid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing 1 mg L−1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.5 mg L−1 N6-benzyladenine (BA). After four rounds of 15-d subcultures, PLBs were initially proliferated in liquid half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg L−1 TDZ and 0.1 mg L−1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and subcultured monthly into fresh medium. When 15% (v/v) CW was added to half-strength MS medium, optimal growth and proliferation of PLBs resulted with the following principal findings: a maximum of 2.86 g total fresh weight (FW) of PLBs formed from 1 g of PLBs, an average of 0.46 g FW of PLBs added per subculture period, a total of 157.1 PLBs formed, an average of 25.3 PLBs added per subculture period, and a low percentage of PLB browning (20.7%). Half-strength MS medium containing 15% (v/v) CW with Rosasol® medium (liquid fertilizer; 1.5 g L−1 18 N:18P:18 K + 1.5 g L−1 25 N:10P:10 K + TE) resulted in a similar organogenic outcome with 25.5% PLB browning. PLBs germinated easily and rooted on Rosasol-supplemented plant growth regulator-free medium. In total, 180 Dendrobium ‘Gradita 31’ plantlets from all treatments were successfully acclimatized with 100% survival on a Cycas rumphii bulk substrate and grew well after repotting in a mixture of wood charcoal and C. rumphii bulk (1:1, v/v). © 2015, The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Winarto B.,Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute | Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University
Scientia Horticulturae

A new micropropagation protocol for leatherleaf fern (. Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forst.) Ching) was successfully established using rhizomes as the donor explant, following appropriate sterilization. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.25. mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2. mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 1.0. mg/l 6-benzyl adenine (BA), and 0.5. mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) with 30. g/l sucrose (IM-4) was the most appropriate medium for culture initiation. When entire rhizomes harvested from mother stock plants were cultured on a simple paper bridge containing liquid IM-4 medium, culture initiation improved with 3.4 rhizomes regenerated per sub-culture. The average multiplication rate of newly regenerated rhizomes increased to 5.7/rhizome on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.05. mg/l IAA, 0.25. mg/l BA, 0.5. mg/l Kin, 1. g/l activated charcoal and 20. g/l sucrose (MM-5). The level of multiplication peaked in the fifth subculture and retained high quality until the sixth subculture. From the seventh subculture onwards, the quality of regenerated fronds was reduced. The regenerated rhizomes rooted easily on MM-5 and could be acclimatized ex vitro with 97-100% survival. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Teixeira da Silva J.A.,P. O. Box 7 | Dobranszki J.,Debrecen University | Zeng S.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Winarto B.,Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

Although Anthurium is an attractive and commercially popular ornamental plant, its genetic enhancement has lagged behind that of other ornamental crops. There are several agronomically important traits in need of improvement. These include novel flower colors and morphologies, increased shelf and vase lives, and resistance to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae), burrowing nematodes and abiotic stresses. The production of transgenic Anthuriums is critical because the conventional breeding of a cultivar with beneficial traits typically requires 8–10 years. This review evaluates the problems, challenges and progress associated with developing molecular markers for Anthurium and in genetically transforming this ornamental. Recent improvements have hastened the tissue culture and regeneration of transgenic plants primarily using Agrobacterium-based methods. Promoter analyses have focused on constitutive and tissue-enhanced gene expression with the green fluorescent protein being a more reliable reporter than β-glucuronidase. The development of molecular markers assists with phylogenetic analyses and PCR-based markers such as RAPD, SSR, SPAR, ISSR and AFLP can be used to differentiate cultivars and for genetic fingerprinting. The marker-assisted breeding of Anthurium will become more feasible once available data are used for association to specific traits. Work on the identification of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other traits such as flower colour is required and should incorporate new approaches, such as next-generation sequencing technologies. By highlighting the aforementioned bottlenecks and successes in this review, it is expected that the pace of Anthurium genetic improvement will increase with the multifaceted incorporation of focused priorities and new technology advancements. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Winarto B.,Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute | Rachmawati F.,Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute | Setyawati A.S.,Indonesian Ornamental Research Station | da Silva J.A.T.,P. O. Box 7
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture

Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn) is an important ornamental commodity in South-East Asia. However, mass propagation of the plant at a commercial scale to satisfy market demands is faced by limited availability of high quality and uniform seedlings as planting material. Using different regeneration media and leaf explants for callus induction, regeneration, proliferation, root formation and acclimatization were studied. High callus induction and adventitious shoot formation were possible from leaf explants of E. grandiflorum 'White Lavender' cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.3 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), but high quality shoots (8.0) was established on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.002 mg/l NAA. In the same medium, adventitious shoots could be multiplied up to the fourth subculture at a rate of 1.74 which decreased to a 1.57 multiplication rate in subsequent subcultures. Shoots rooted easily on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l BA and 0.02 mg/l NAA with 3.9 roots per shoot. The plantlets, which were successfully acclimatized in a mixture of burned-rice husk and organic manure (1:1, v/v) with 90% survival, grew well after repotting. Source

Hossain M.M.,Chittagong University | Kant R.,Panjab University | Van P.T.,Ehime University | Van P.T.,Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences

This review provides an informative and broad overview of orchid biotechnology, addressing several important aspects such as molecular systematics, modern breeding, in vitro morphogenesis, protoplast culture, flowering control, flower color, somaclonal variation, orchid mycorrhiza, pathogen resistance, virus diagnosis and production of virus-free plants, functional genomics, genetic transformation, conservation biotechnology and pharmaceutical biotechnology. This resource will provide valuable insight to researchers who are involved in orchid biology and floriculture, using biotechnology to advance research objectives. Producing an improved orchid through biotechnology for industrial purposes or to serve as a model plant for pure and applied sciences is well within reach and many of the current techniques and systems are already employed at the commercial production level. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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