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Sisunandar,University of Queensland | Sopade P.A.,University of Queensland | Samosir Y.M.S.,University of Queensland | Samosir Y.M.S.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute | And 2 more authors.

Cryopreservation of coconut can be used as a strategy to back up the establishment of living collections which are expensive to maintain and are under constant threat from biotic and abiotic factors. Unfortunately, cryopreservation protocols still need to be developed that are capable of producing a sizeable number of field-grown plants. Therefore, we report on the development of an improved cryopreservation protocol which can be used on a wide range of coconut cultivars. The cryopreservation of zygotic embryos and their recovery to soil-growing plants was achieved through the application of four optimised steps. viz.: (i) rapid dehydration; (ii) rapid cooling; (iii) rapid warming and recovery. in vitro and (iv) acclimatisation and soil-supported growth. The thermal properties of water within the embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to ensure that the freezable component was kept to a minimum. The feasibility of the protocol was assessed using the Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD) cultivar in Australia and then tested on a range of cultivars which were freshly harvested and studied in Indonesia. The most efficient protocol was one based on an 8-h rapid dehydration step followed by rapid cooling step. Best recovery percentages were obtained when a rapid warming step and an optimised. in vitro culture step were used. Following this protocol, 20% (when cryopreserved 12. days after harvesting) and 40% (when cryopreserved at the time of harvest) of all MYD embryos cryopreserved could be returned to normal seedlings growing in soil. DSC showed that this protocol induced a drop in embryo fresh weight to 19% and significantly reduced the amount of water remaining that could produce ice crystals (0.1%). Of the 20 cultivars tested, 16 were found to produce between 10% and 40% normal seedlings while four cultivars generated between 0% and 10% normal seedlings after cryopreservation. This new protocol is applicable to a wide range of coconut cultivars and is useful for the routine cryopreservation of coconut genetic resources. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lamade E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Tcherkez G.,Australian National University | Darlan N.H.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute | Rodrigues R.L.,Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental | And 5 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment

Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural 13C-abundance (δ13C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a 13C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most 13C-enriched. The δ13C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in 13C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ13C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of 13C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects (12v/13v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Stichnothe H.,Thunen Institute of Agricultural Technology | Schuchardt F.,Thunen Institute of Agricultural Technology | Rahutomo S.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to evaluate assumptions and data used in calculations related to palm oil produced for biodiesel production relative to the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED). The intent of this paper is not to review all assumptions and data, but rather to evaluate whether the methodology is applied in a consistent way and whether current default values address relevant management practices of palm oil production systems. Methods: The GHG calculation method provided in Annex V of the EU-RED was used to calculate the GHG-emissions from palm oil production systems. Moreover, the internal nitrogen recycling on the plantation was calculated based on monitoring data in North Sumatra. Results and discussion: A calculation methodology is detailed in Annex V of the EU-RED. Some important aspects necessary to calculate the GHG emission savings correctly are insufficiently considered, e.g.: • "Nitrogen recycling" within the plantation due to fronds remaining on the plantation is ignored. The associated organic N-input to the plantation and the resulting nitrous oxide emissions is not considered within the calculations, despite crop residues being taken into account for annual crops in the BIOGRACE tool. • The calculation of GHG-emissions from residue and waste water treatment is inappropriately implemented despite being a hot-spot for GHG emissions within the life cycle of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel. Additionally, no distinction is made between palm oil and palm kernel oil even though palm kernel oil is rarely used for biodiesel production. • The allocation procedure does not address the most relevant oil mill management practices. Palm oil mills produce crude palm oil (CPO) in addition either nuts or palm kernels and nut shells. In the first case, the nuts would be treated as co-products and upstream emissions would be allocated based on the energy content; in the second case the kernels would be treated as co-products while the shelöls are considered as waste without upstream emissions. This has a significant impact on the resulst or GHG savings, respectively. • It is not specified whether indirect GHG emissions from nitrogen oxide emission from the heat and power unit of palm oil mills should be taken into account. Conclusions and recommendations: In conclusion, the existing calculation methodology described in Annex V of the EU-RED and default values are insufficient for calculating the real GHG emission savings from palm oil and palm oil biodiesel. The current default values do not reflect relevant management practices. Additionally, they protect poor management practices, such as the disposal of empty fruit bunches (EFB), and lead to an overestimation of GHG savings from palm oil biodiesel. A default value for EFB disposal must be introduced because resulting GHG emissions are substantial. Organic nitrogen from fronds must be taken into account when calculating real GHG savings from palm oil biodiesel. Further, more conservative data for FFB yield and fugitive emissions from wastewater treatment should be introduced in order to foster environmental friendly management options. Moreover, credits for bioenergy production from crop residues should be allowed in order to foster the mobilization of currently unused biomass. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

Harsono S.S.,University of Jember | Grundmann P.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering | Siahaan D.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute
Energy Procedia

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which related to palm oil production are tend to increase due to the increasing of palm oil demand and the expansion process of oil palm production worldwide. The specific objective of the study was to assess the contribution of innovative biomass processes as effort to improve the energy balance and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with biodiesel made from palm oil. The GHG was calculated that GHG emission savings up to 63.14% in total. GHG emissions from biochar using empty fruit bunches (EFB) resulted to 2.95% from total GHG emissions, and biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced 74.22% of the total GHG emissions from palm oil based biodiesel production. Innovative technologies and processes for the treatment of by-products can contribute significantly for meeting the emission targets. Build upon the research, resulted to the recommendation to use biochar and capturing methane from POME. The research result was also concerned that emission savings are annulled in the case of land use change (LUC) and oil palm production on peatland. Based on this research resulted to recommended that the utilization of waste from oil palm cultivation on peatland which was disuse and the capturing of methane from POME © 2015 The Authors. Source

Santoso H.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute | Gunawan T.,Gadjah Mada University | Jatmiko R.H.,Gadjah Mada University | Darmosarkoro W.,Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute | Minasny B.,University of Sydney
Precision Agriculture

The application of remote sensing technology and precision agriculture in the oil palm industry is in development. This study investigated the potential of high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery, which has a synoptic overview, for detecting oil palms infected by basal stem rot disease and for mapping the disease. Basal stem rot disease poses a major threat to the oil palm industry, especially in Indonesia. It is caused by Ganoderma boninense and the symptoms can be seen on the leaf and basal stem. At present there is no effective control for this disease and early detection of the infection is essential. A detailed, accurate and rapid method of monitoring the disease is needed urgently. This study used QuickBird imagery to detect the disease and its spatial pattern. Initially, oil palm and non oil palm object segmentation based on the red band was used to map the spatial pattern of the disease. Secondly, six vegetation indices derived from visible and near infrared bands (NIR) were used for to identify palms infected by the disease. Finally, ground truth from field sampling in four fields with different ages of plant and degrees of infection was used to assess the accuracy of the remote sensing approach. The results show that image segmentation effectively delineated areas infected by the disease with a mapping accuracy of 84%. The resulting maps showed two patterns of the disease; a sporadic pattern in fields with older palms and a dendritic pattern in younger palms with medium to low infection. Ground truth data showed that oil palms infected by basal stem rot had a higher reflectance in the visible bands and a lower reflectance in the near infrared band. Different vegetation indices performed differently in each field. The atmospheric resistant vegetation index and green blue normalized difference vegetation index identified the disease with an accuracy of 67% in a field with 21 year old palms and high infection rates. In the field of 10 year old palms with medium rates of infection, the simple ratio (NIR/red) was effective with an accuracy of 62% for identifying the disease. The green blue normalized difference vegetation index was effective in the field of 10 years old palms with low infection rates with an accuracy of 59%. In the field of 15 and 18 years old palms with low infection rates, all the indices showed low levels of accuracy for identifying the disease. This study suggests that high resolution QuickBird imagery offers a quick, detailed and accurate way of estimating the location and extent of basal stem rot disease infections in oil palm plantations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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