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Sutrisno,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Kuswantoro H.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus (CpMMV) is a very detrimental disease to soybean. This virus infection can cause yield reduction up to 56%. Introduction varieties can be served as alternative material in breeding program to develop resistant variety. This study aimed to evaluate the response of introduction soybean varieties from South Korea to the CpMMV infection. Ten South Korean soybean varieties and two check Indonesian soybean varieties were grown at ILETRI from August to November 2012. CpMMV infection was carried out by natural infection using whitefly transmission. The results showed that the South Korean variety of Daemang-2 had lower leave malformation level than two Indonesian varieties. Varieties of Cheongja-3, Daemang, Daehwang, Daewon, Danweon, Geomjeong-3 Geonjeongsaeol produced grain yield that equal to Anjasmoro variety. Daepung was the most resistant to CpMMV than other varieties, but having low grain yield. Daemang-2 was the most tolerant to CpMMV, because it still able to produce high grain yield although showing high leaf infection. These two varieties could be used as gene sources for resistant/tolerant to CpMMV in soybean breeding program. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved. Source


Sulistyo A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Sumartini,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

Pest and disease are one of limiting factor in soybean cultivation in Indonesia. One of the diseases that can reduce soybean production is rust diseases caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The use of resistant varieties can reduce yield losses due to this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of soybean genotypes to rust disease and to study the interaction between agronomic traits with rust disease on soybean genotypes. This study was conducted at a screen house of the Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI) in Malang, Indonesia from April to July 2015. A total of 10 soybean genotypes consist of eight lines and two varieties (Argomulyo and Grobogan) was evaluated for rust resistance to rust disease. The eight lines tested were a progeny of a cross between offspring of IAC 100 (resistant to rust disease) with high yielding soybean varieties (Argomulyo and Grobogan). The experiment was arranged as randomized completely block design with four replications. Each genotype planted in five plastic pots for each replicate. Three weeks after planting, all plants were inoculated with rust disease. Inoculation was done by spraying a suspension of spores (spore density of 104 spore mL-1) to the surface of leaves. Observations were carried out on rust disease severity based on the method of International Working Group on Soybean Rust rating system, days to flowering, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of pods, and seed weight per plant. The results showed that all genotypes classified as moderately resistant to rust disease. In this study, days to flowering and plant height influence the development of rust disease severity. There are three lines that have seed weight per plant significantly heavier than Argomulyo (4.97 g) and Grobogan (4.30 g), namely K/I100//B63///G-7 (6.55 g), K/I100//B63///G-8 (6.15 g), and I100/B54//A-5 (5.85 g). The high value of the scales of seed weight per plant for the three lines is supported by high-performance plants with a lot of number of fertile nodes and pods. These three soybean genotypes potentially serve as genetic material to develop high yielding soybean varieties and resistant to rust disease. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved. Source


Sulistyo A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Inayati A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

The attack of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) in soybean cultivation in Indonesia is one of the limiting factors in increasing the national soybean production. Planting resistant varieties could reduce yield losses due to the damage caused by these pests. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 14 soybean genotypes to the whiteflies. A freechoice and no-choice test was conducted in a green house to study the antixenosis and antibiosis. Meanwhile, field evaluation was conducted to determine the tolerance of soybean genotypes to the whiteflies. Determination of the resistance of soybean genotypes to whiteflies based on the intensity of leaf damage that occurs on fifth weeks after infestation. The results showed that in free-choice test, Gema, IAC-100/Kaba-6, Malabar/IAC-100-85, Kaba/IAC-100//Burangrang-60, and Kaba/IAC-100//Burangrang-63 showed antixenosis mechanism which correlates with length and low density of leaf trichomes as well as leaf thickness. In the no-choice test, antibiosis mechanism can be seen from the small number of adults that develop from nymphs. IAC-100/Kaba-8 and IAC-100/Kaba-14 showed a high degree of antibiosis. In addition, the results of field experiment showed that Gema, IAC-100/Kaba-14, and Tanggamus/Pangrango- 78 demonstrated a tolerance to whiteflies. It is shown on a slightly decreasing in yield of these three genotypes (17.33, 19.31, and 19.85%, respectively). © 2016, Dove Medical Press Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Rahmianna A.A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Yusnawan E.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI
Biodiversitas | Year: 2016

Vegetative and generative growth of groundnut genotypes under biotic environmental stress. Biodiversitas 17: 503-509. The decrease in groundnut pod yield is mainly influenced by disease infestation, especially bacterial wilt and foliar diseases. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the response and tolerance of groundnut genotypes to bacterial wilt, leaf spot and rust diseases, and seed infection by Aspergillus flavus. The planting materials were 25 genotypes (11 Indonesian cultivars, 12 lines introduced from ICRISAT, 1 Indonesian promising line, and 1 local cultivar) with various superiorities on diseases resistance. This study was arranged in a randomized completely block design with triplicate. The results indicated that both genotypes from ICRISAT and Indonesia had similar response to leaf spot i.e. ranging from susceptible (score 6-7) to highly susceptible (8-9). The score for rust ranged from moderately resistant to susceptible. The average pod yield was 23.1 g/plant (from 11.9 g to 29.5 g), and 13 and 12 genotypes produced pods higher and lower than the average value, respectively. ICGV 86158 and ICGV 95322 had the highest and lowest seeds as well as pod productivity, respectively. The ICRISAT genotypes were susceptible to Ralstonia solanacearum infection, except for ICGV 86590. Among the Indonesian cultivars, those with Valencia type of growth, relatively had better resistance to bacterial infection. These cultivars were also resistant to rust and A. flavus infection. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved. Source


Kasno A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Taufiq A.,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI | Trustinah,Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute ILETRI
Agrivita | Year: 2013

The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranged from 3.1 to 5.0, however could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1) were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI) according to Fernandez (1992). Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, peanut yield and its components grown on acidic soil. Individually, IC87123/86680-93-B-75-55- 1 genotype had highest STI in the greenhouse, but lower in the field. In contrast, GH3 (G/92088/92088- 02-B-2-8-1) and GH 4 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-2) genotypes had low STI in the greenhouse, but high in the field with average yield of 2.47 t ha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively. Check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1) had low STI in greenhouses as well as in the field. There were concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic dry land, and adaptation and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms. Source

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