Matsubayashi K.W.,Hokkaido University |
Kahono S.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences |
Katakura H.,Hokkaido University
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011
Detecting the isolating barrier that arises earliest in speciation is critically important to understanding the mechanism of species formation. We tested isolating barriers between host races of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna diekei (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachnine), that occur sympatrically on distinct host plants. We conducted field surveys for the distribution of the beetles and host plants, rearing experiments to measure six potential isolating factors (adult host preference, adult and larval host performance, sexual isolation, egg hatchability, F1 hybrid inviability, and sexual selection against F1 hybrids), and molecular analyses of mitochondrial ND2 and the nuclear ITS2 sequences. We found significant genetic divergence between the host races, and extremely divergent host preference (i.e. habitat isolation) and host performance (i.e. immigrant inviability), but no other isolating barriers. The fidelity to particular host plants arises first and alone can prevent gene flow between differentiating populations of phytophagous specialists. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Rafliana I.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Journal of Disaster Research | Year: 2012
The most recent disaster events in Indonesia have been a major wakeup call for focusing more attention on disaster education. The task is not easy. The current development conditions, including population growth and environmental degradation increase the level of vulnerabilities of communities at risks (Ronan et al., 2005) against future disasters. As one of the strategies aimed at reducing disaster risks, disaster education interventions were adopted for schools with the hope that it can be an effective catalyst for influencing community preparedness. Many organizations were playing their respective roles in increasing schools' knowledge and preparedness. Two to four years after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, preparedness assessment was conducted for schools, local community and authorities in at least eight districts/cities in Indonesia. The results were quite surprising: preparedness of schools were almost always the lowest. This paper shares lessons learnt from disaster education interventions in Indonesia in the past six years after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004; some of the designed interventions were a part of the aforementioned preparedness assessment. The aim of this paper is to discuss some approaches and reconsider the effectiveness of integrating disaster risk reduction, not only in the context of Indonesia but also for application around the globe. A shift from awareness raising activities to more process-based activities such as the development of school-based preparedness models, is now occurring and is observable in several schools. Yet, mainstreaming disaster risk management in the school system, as a chosen strategy for reducing risks to schools in potential disaster-prone areas, may not be simple.
Giraffa G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council |
Chanishvili N.,The G Eliava Institute Of Bacteriophage |
Widyastuti Y.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2010
The genus Lactobacillus is a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with important implications in food fermentation. The ability to colonize a variety of habitats is a direct consequence of the wide metabolic versatility of this group of LAB. Consequently, lactobacilli have been used for decades in food preservation, as starters for dairy products, fermented vegetables, fish and sausages as well as silage inoculants. Lactobacilli have also been proposed as probiotics and microbial cell factories for the production of nutraceuticals. However, a wide range of applications of lactobacilli in food biotechnology remains potential, whereas a number of important strains still need to be discovered and characterized. This article provides an overview of the taxonomy of lactobacilli and describes four of the most significant case studies on the application of this group of LAB in food and feed biotechnology, including their use as probiotics, dairy starters, silage inoculants, and microbial cell factories. The importance of access to and exchange of biological material within and between different strain collections as a crucial step in expanding the range of different biotechnological applications of lactobacilli is also emphasized. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Ramadhan H.S.,Tufts University |
Ramadhan H.S.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012
We study the theory of a (global) texture with DBI-like Lagrangian, the higher-dimensional generalization of the previously known chiral Born-Infeld theory. This model evades Derrick's theorem and enables the existence of solitonic solutions in arbitrary (N+1) dimensions. We explicitly show the solutions in spherically symmetric ansatz. These are examples of extended topological solitons. We then investigate the coupling of this theory to gravity, and obtain the static self-gravitating solitonic p-brane solutions. These nonsingular branes can be identified as the smooth versions of cosmic p-branes which, in the thin-wall limit, suffers from naked singularities. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Ramadhan H.S.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences |
Ramadhan H.S.,University of Indonesia
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012
In this Letter we show numerical existence of O(4) Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) Textures living in (N+1) dimensional spacetime. These defects are characterized by S N→S 3 mapping, generalizing the well-known Hopf fibration into π N(S 3), for all N>3. The nonlinear nature of DBI kinetic term provides stability against size perturbation and thus renders the defects having natural scale. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.