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Lukman,Malikussaleh University | Zhang D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Susilo A.W.,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute ICCRI | Dinarti D.,Bogor Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Plant Biology

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa powder and cocoa butter used for chocolate, originated in the rainforests of South America. Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producer in the world with an annual cocoa output of 0.84 million tons. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic background of superior farmer-selected clones from farmers’ fields, in order to provide a scientific basis to support cacao rehabilitation in Aceh, Indonesia. The pilot experiment assessed 136 genotypes, including 80 Aceh farmer selections and 56 reference international clones, using 53 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Principle coordinates analysis revealed that the Aceh farmer selections were largely hybrids between Upper Amazon Forastero and Trinitario. Bayesian clustering analysis further specified the germplasm groups of the ancestral contributors. Of the 80 farmer selections, parentage analysis identified 30 parent-offspring relationships contributed by 16 progenitors. Spatial genetic analysis showed no significant global spatial correlation, but local spatial correlation was detected. These results suggest that only a fraction of cacao germplasm from Upper Amazon has been incorporated into farmers’ fields, despite the use of diversie progenitors in breeding programs and seed gardens. This relatively narrow genetic background was likely due either to limited access to diverse hybrids by local farmers or to the over-emphasis on selecting for yield and morphological appearance, such as pods and bean size. Based on the results, a subset of farmer selections with diverse genetic background are chosen and evaluated in field trials. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Dinarti D.,Bogor Agricultural University | Susilo A.W.,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute ICCRI | Meinhardt L.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ji K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Breeding Science

Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. © 2015, Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved. Source

Utomo B.,King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi | Utomo B.,Center for Energy Technology and Environment | Prawoto A.A.,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute ICCRI | Bonnet S.,King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production

Indonesia is seeking to expand its cocoa production to meet the increased international demand. However, this effort faces economies of scale and ecological challenges. This research aims at evaluating environmental performance of cocoa production from cocoa monoculture and cocoa-agroforestry by life cycle assessment based on ISO 14040 and 14044, with adaptation for local impact indicators. This study defined cocoa-agroforestry as raw and sequential of cocoa-coconut and cocoa-rubber agroforestry, combined with shading trees Leucaena sp. and Gliricidia sepium. The analysis considered cocoa production at farm level, from cradle to on-farm gate boundary for 1 metric tonne of cocoa pod. The results showed that cocoa-coconut agroforestry had the least contribution to global impact categories of global warming, acidification and eutrophication, accounting for 3.67E+01kgCO2-eq, 4.31E-02kgSO2-eq, and 2.25E-05kgPO4-eq respectively. Cocoa-coconut agroforestry also had the highest organic carbon and soil organic matter, conditions supporting the growth and activity of beneficial soil microbeds (Pseudomonas sp. and Trichoderma sp.). In addition, total land equivalent ratio of cocoa-coconut agroforestry had the highest value at 1.36, indicating a highest yield advantage was gained. Therefore, cocoa-coconut agroforestry could be a wise option to promote environmental sustainability of cocoa cultivation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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