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Minasny B.,University of Sydney | Sulaeman Y.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development | Mcbratney A.B.,University of Sydney
Global Change Biology

Research in the soil of the tropics mostly has demonstrated the decline of soil organic carbon (SOC) after conversion of primary forest to plantation and cultivated lands. This paper illustrates the dynamics of SOC on the island of Java, Indonesia, from 1930 to 2010. We used 2002 soil profile observations containing organic carbon (C) analysis in the topsoil, which were collected by the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research & Development from 1923 to 2007. Results show the obvious decline of SOC values from around 2% in 1930-1940 to 0.8% in 1960-1970. However, there has been an increase of SOC content since 1970, with a median level of 1.1% in the year 2000. Our analysis suggests that the human influence and agricultural practices on SOC in Java have been a stronger influence than the environmental factors. SOC for the top 10cm has shown a net accumulation rate of 0.2-0.3MgCha-1yr-1 during the period 1990-2000. These findings give rise to optimism for increased soil C sequestration in the tropics. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Susanti M.A.,Indonesian Swampland Agriculture Research Institute | Anwar S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Dadang,Bogor Agricultural University | Las I.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development | Sabiham S.,Bogor Agricultural University
Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences

Utilization of peatlands for agriculture will be associated with water management and pesticides. Rice cultivation in peatlands become potential contributor to global warming through carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission. The study was conducted in tidal peat swamp at Central Kalimantan Province at October 2012 to March 2013. The study aims to evaluate the effect of water management and pesticides on CO2 and CH4 emissions. The study was designed in a split plot design with three water management treatments as the main plot and six pesticide treatments as subplots. The water management treatments: control (A0), saturated water (A1), and intermittent irrigation (A2). The pesticide treatments: control (P0), paraquat during tillage (P1), fenobucarb for every week application (P2), fenobucarb for every two weeks application (P3), difenoconazole for every week application (P4), and difenoconazole for every two weeks application (P5). Fenobucarb which is applied every week (P2) was able to suppress CO2 flux as much as 40%. Intermittent irrigation (A2) could mitigate CO2 flux measured from soil as much as 36%. Suppression mechanism of GHG emissions appear to be associated with the binding mechanism between pesticide and phenolic acids. © 2015 International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Martinsen V.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Alling V.,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute | Nurida N.L.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development | Mulder J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of increasing amounts (0–30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30 tons ha−1, the estimated increase in soil pH from the initial mean pH of 4.7 was about 0.5 units for the cacao shell BC, whereas this was only 0.05 and 0.04 units for the oil palm shell and rice husk BC, respectively. Besides depending on BC type, the increase in soil pH upon the addition of each of the three BCs was mainly dependent on soil CEC (low CEC resulting in stronger pH increase), and to a lesser extent on initial soil pH (higher initial pH resulting in stronger pH increase). Addition of BC also increased the amount of exchangeable base cations (cacao shell ≫ oil palm and rice husk) and CEC. Through this systematic screening of the effect of BC on pH and CEC of acidic soils, we show that a small addition of BC, in particular if made of cacao shell, to acidic agricultural soils increases soil pH and CEC. However, the response is highly dependent on the type, quality and amount of the added BC as well as on intrinsic soil properties, mainly CEC. © 2015 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Source

Shofiyati R.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development | Takeuchi W.,University of Tokyo | Darmawan S.,University of Tokyo | Sofan P.,Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013, ACRS 2013

Long droughts experienced in the past are identified as one of the main factors in the failure of rice production. In this regard, special attention to monitor the condition is encouraged to reduce the damage. Currently, various satellite data and approaches can withdraw valuable information for monitoring and anticipating drought hazards. MODIS, MTSAT, AMSR-E, TRMM and GSMaP have been used in this activity. Meteorological drought index (SPI) of the daily and monthly rainfall data from TRMM and GSMaP have analyzed for last 10-year period. While, agronomic drought index has been studied by observing the character of some indices (EVI, VCI, VHI, LST, and NDVI) of sixteenday and monthly MODIS, MTSAT, and AMSR-E data at a period of 4 years. Network for data transfer has been built between LAPAN (data provider), ICALRD (implementer), IAARD Cloud Computing, and University of Tokyo (technical supporter). This paper describes the implementation of drought impact monitoring model on rice production and its dissemination by developing a Web-GIS integrating satellite based system. Source

Takeuchi W.,University of Tokyo | Darmawan S.,University of Tokyo | Darmawan S.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Shofiyati R.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development | And 4 more authors.
ACRS 2015 - 36th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing: Fostering Resilient Growth in Asia, Proceedings

This research focuses on a development of satellite-based drought monitoring warning system for croplands in Asian countries. Drought condition of cropland is evaluated by using Keeth-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) computed from rainfall measurements with GSMaP product, land surface temperature by MTSAT product and vegetation phenology by MODIS NDVI product at daily basis. The derived information is disseminated as a system for an application of space based technology (SBT) in the implementation of the Core Agriculture Support Program. The benefit of this system are to develop satellite-based drought monitoring and early warning system in Asian counties using freely available data, and to develop capacity of policy makers in those countries to apply the developed system in policy making. A series of training program has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 to officers and researchers of ministry of agriculture and relevant agencies in Greater Mekong Subregion countries including Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. This system is running as fully operational and can be accessed at http://webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/. Source

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