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Ranathilaka M.B.,University of Peradeniya | Andri K.B.,Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

In many developing countries, the government implemented vegetable marketing policies aiming both efficiency as well as effective distribution yet that some of the program had been ineffective or have failed. Therefore, this study analyzes vegetable market efficiency using Dabulla wholesale market in Sri Lanka as a case study. The questions are posed here that the main factors of recent vegetable market price increase trend. Was the vegetable market price hike trend policy driven or market driven? What are the short term, medium term and long term economic consequence of vegetable market price hikes? The study showed that the bargaining power of merchants and the farmers may significantly determine the MM (Net marketing margin). Another important factor is cartel behavior of middlemen within the farm-gate and wholesale markets as well as wholesale and retail markets. Therefore, policy makers have to consider the ways to reduce unnecessary middleman involvement to develop an effective marketing system which provides higher benefit to farmers and consumers. Another factor is infrastructural facilities such as roads and access to the market easier, especially, communication that provide pricing and other information. In addition, storage and processing also have an important role to play within the context of counter seasonal strategies. Marketing cost mainly depends on those factors specially post harvest losses. In this context, it is an urgent need to introduce suitable and practical techniques to reduce post harvest losses which control marketing cost and improve marketing efficiency. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Rivaie A.A.,Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2011

A study was carried out to test the effects of three rates of TSP (triple superphosphate) (0, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1 P) on growth of broom with and without radiata pine seedlings and to determine the relationships between P concentrations in the broom shoot and dry matter yields with soil plant-available P (Bray-2 P). A bulk sample of soil was collected from Kaweka forest at soil depth of 0-10 cm, in New Zealand on March 11, 2001. The forest area was not supplied with fertiliser at least 30 years. The results show that TSP application increased P availability in the soil. The P availability concentration in soil of broom with radiata pine seedlings was higher than that in soil of broom alone. Bray-2 P concentrations had a significant logarithmic relationship with P concentrations of broom shoot and an exponential relationship with dry matter weight of whole broom plant. © 2011 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kuswantoro H.,Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development | Zubaidah S.,State University of Malang | Sulisetijono,State University of Malang
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

CpMMV-resistant soybean genotype is required in all of soil types, because the incidence of CpMMV is spreaded out in broad and various areas including various soil types. Therefore, CpMMV-resistant soybean genotype is also needed to other soil type such as Ultisols and associated Entisols-Inceptisols. The objective of the research was to study the response of CpMMV-resistant soybean lines in Ultisols and associated Entisols-Inceptisols soil types. A total of 16 F8 generation of CpMMV-resistant soybean lines were grown those two soil types by using randomized complete block design with three replications. The site of Ultisols was in Kalimantan Island while Entisols-Inceptisols site was in Java Island. Results showed that genotype xenvironment interaction was found on plant height, number of reproductive nodes per plant, number of pods per plant, grain size and grain yield. In Ultisols some of agronomical characters decreased such as number of branches per plant, grain size and grain yield but some agronomical characters also increased such as plant height, number of reproductive nodes per plant and number of filled pods per plant. Decreasing seed size was found on all of the genotypes grown in Ultisols and it caused decreasing grain yield. The higher number of filled pods per plant in Ultisols rather than in Entisols-Inceptisols could not increase grain yield in Ultisols. Gl achieved the heighest grain yield (1.6 t ha-1) in Ultisols suggesting this genotype can be developed as CpMMV-resistant soybean genotype in acid soil area. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Husnain H.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Wigena I.G.P.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Dariah A.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | Marwanto S.,Indonesian Soil Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

With the increasing use of tropical peatland for agricultural development, documentation of the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is becoming important for national greenhouse gas inventories. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil-surface CO2 fluxes from drained peat under different land-use systems in Riau and Jambi Provinces, Sumatra, Indonesia. Increase of CO2 concentration was tracked in measurement chambers using an Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR 820 model). The results showed that CO2 flux under oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations ranged from 34 ± 16 and 45 ± 25 Mg CO2 ha-1 year-1 in two locations in Jambi province to 66 ± 25 Mg CO2 ha-1 year-1 for a site in Riau. For adjacent plots within 3.2 km in the Kampar Peninsula, Riau, CO2 fluxes from an oil palm plantation, an Acacia plantation, a secondary forest and a rubber plantation were 66 ± 25, 59 ± 19, 61 ± 25, 52 ± 17 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively, while on bare land sites it was between 56 ± 30 and 67 ± 24 Mg CO2 ha-1 year-1, indicating no significant differences among the different land-use systems in the same landscape. Unexplained site variation seems to dominate over land use in influencing CO2 flux. CO2 fluxes varied with time of day (p < 0.001) with the noon flux as the highest, suggesting an overestimate of the mean flux values with the absence of night-time measurements. In general, CO2 flux increased with the depth of water table, suggesting the importance of keeping the peat as wet as possible. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Rivaie A.A.,Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development | Tillman R.W.,Massey University
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2010

A study was carried out to investigate changes in the soil plant-available P, the P nutrition and the growth of Pinus radiata seedlings grown in association with understory, broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) or ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on Orthic Allophanic Soil, following the application of three rates of triple superphosphate (TSP) (0, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1P) under a glasshouse condition. The application of P fertilizer enhanced P availability in the rhizospheric of radiata seedlings and the bulk soils in a P-deficient site. P availability in the rhizospheric soils of ryegrass and broom, grown in association with radiata, were also increased by the presence of radiata roots. P concentrations in new shoot needles, old shoot needles, stem and roots of radiata pine increased with increase rates of TSP application, but the effects of ryegrass and broom on P nutrition of radiata seedlings depended on the soil P status. In the absence of P fertilizer addition (control treatment), P concentrations in new shoot needles, old shoot needles, stem, and roots of radiata grown in association with broom were higher than those with ryegrass, whereas, when P fertilizer was added (50 and 100 mg·kg-1) the P concentration was lower. This is probably related to the growth of broom that may have removed much of the plant-available P in the soil as indicated by the consistently lower Bray-2 P concentration in the rhizosphere soil of radiata in association with broom than that in the rhizosphere soil of radiata in association with grass at the two high P rates. Furthermore, in the high P fertile soil (application rate of 100 mg·kg-1), the dry matter yield of radiata was lower when it was grown with broom than with ryegrass. This result suggests that in moderate to high P fertile soils, P. radiata seedlings grow better with ryegrass than with broom, because broom grows vigorously in high P fertile soil and competes with P. radiata for P and perhaps for other nutrients as well. © 2010 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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