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Garay L.A.,University of California at Davis | Sitepu I.R.,University of California at Davis | Sitepu I.R.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | Cajka T.,University of California at Davis | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes. © 2016 Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

Amarra M.S.V.,International Life science Institute Southeast Asia Region | Chan P.M.,International Life science Institute Southeast Asia Region | Muslimatun S.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | Suthutvoravut U.,Mahidol University | Barba C.V.C.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Introduction: In August 2014, the ILSI SEAR Infant and Early Childhood Nutrition Task Force held the 4th Expert Consultation and Planning Meeting on Maternal, Infant, and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: The consultation focused on the nutrition and health situation of pregnant adolescents. The objectives were therefore to: (1) discuss the current nutrition and health situation of pregnant and non-pregnant adolescent girls in six Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam); (2) generate recommendations for teenage pregnancies in the region; and (3) identify regional issues, knowledge gaps and research priorities in order to improve adolescent health in Southeast Asia. Results: There is very little information on the health and nutrition status of pregnant and non-pregnant adolescent girls (aged 10 to 19 years old) in Southeast Asia. In most countries, teenage pregnancy rates are higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Anaemia has been shown to be prevalent among reproductive aged females (15 to 49 years old). Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam have high levels of underweight adolescent girls. An increasing prevalence of overweight adolescent girls has been found in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. Conclusion: There is a need for increased knowledge and understanding with regard to the health and nutrition status of female adolescents in the region (including micronutrient status and requirements), and factors that predispose girls to early pregnancy. Two types of program packages should be developed - one for adolescent girls who are not pregnant (aimed at promoting health and preventing early pregnancy) and another for those who are pregnant, including post-natal parenting support.

De Moura F.F.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Moursi M.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Angel M.D.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Angeles-Agdeppa I.,Food and Nutrition Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem affecting developing countries where people eat mostly rice as a staple food. In Asia, rice provides up to 80% of the total daily energy intake. Objective: We used existing data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where dietary intakes have been quantified at the individual level to 1) determine the rice and Vitamin A intake in nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age and in nonbreastfed children 1-3 y old and 2) simulate the amount of change that could be achieved in the prevalence of inadequate intake of Vitamin A if rice biofortified with b-carotene were consumed instead of the rice consumed at present. Design: We considered a range of 4-20 parts per million (ppm) of b-carotene content and 10-70% substitution levels for the biofortified rice. Software was used to estimate usual rice and Vitamin A intake for the simulation analyses. Results: In an analysis by country, the substitution of biofortified rice for white rice in the optimistic scenario (20 ppm and 70% substitution) decreased the prevalence of Vitamin A inadequacy from baseline 78% in women and 71% in children in Bangladesh. In Indonesia and the Philippines, The prevalence of inadequacy fell by 55-60% in women and dropped by nearly 30% in children from baseline. Conclusions: The results of the simulation analysis were striking in that even low substitution levels and modest increases in the b-carotene of rice produced a meaningful decrease in the prevalence of inadequate intake of Vitamin A. Increasing the substitution levels had a greater impact than increasing the b-carotene content by .12 ppm. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:769-75. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

Muslimatun S.,University of Indonesia | Muslimatun S.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | Wiradnyani L.A.A.,University of Indonesia
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2016

Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12–59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12–23 months (n 57), 24–35 months (n 56), 36–47 months (n 58) and 48–59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16–20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. Copyright © The Authors 2016

Stephen J.D.,Queen's University | Mabee W.E.,Queen's University | Pribowo A.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | Pledger S.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

Most residents of Canada's 300 remote communities do not have access to natural gas and must rely upon higher cost and/or less convenient heat sources such as electric heat, heating (furnace) oil, propane, and/or cord wood. This research sought to determine the techno-economic feasibility of increasing biomass utilization for space and hot water heating in remote, off-grid communities in Canada and abroad using a two-option case study approach: 1) a district energy system (DES) connected to a centralized heat generation energy centre fuelled by wood chips; and 2) a decentralized heating option with wood pellet boilers in each individual residence and commercial building. The Nuxalk First Nation Bella Coola community was selected as a case study, with GIS, ground surveys, and climate data used to design DES routes and determine heat demand. It was determined that biomass has the potential to reduce heat costs, reduce the cost of electricity subsidization for electrical utilities, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase energy independence of remote communities. Although results of the analysis are site-specific, the research methodology and general findings on heat-source economic competitiveness could be utilized to support increased bioheat production in remote, off-grid communities for improved socio-economic and environmental outcomes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rahmawati W.,Brawijaya University | Rahmawati W.,University of Indonesia | Muslimatun S.,University of Indonesia | Muslimatun S.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | And 5 more authors.
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Introduction: Helminthiasis is known to contribute to iron deficiency (ID). The aim of this study was to identify the associations between helminth infection and iron status among pregnant women in two different geo-climatic areas in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women in two districts, stratified by wet-lowland (n=135) and wet-highland (n=120) areas. Data on general characteristics, helminth infection, and iron status were obtained. Helminth infection was determined using the Kato-Katz and Harada Mori technique. Iron status was measured using simple-sandwich ELISA techniques for plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR), while haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined by the haematology analyser, and the TfR/PF ratio for body iron stores (BIS) was calculated. Results: Prevalence of hookworm infestation was significantly higher (30% vs. 17.8%)while T. trichiura was significantly lower (0.8% vs. 11.9%) in wet-highland compared to wet-lowland areas. The overall iron status was relatively good and not significantly different between the two areas: 17.3% anaemia (Hb<110 g/L), 6.9% depleted iron store (PF<15 μg/L), 2.4% tissue ID (TfR>8.5 mg/L), 3.3% had BIS<0 mg/kg body weight, and 2.3% anaemia with ID. Prevalence of tissue ID and negative body iron store (BIS) was significantly higher among helminth infected women than in the non-infected women (p<0.05). Conclusions: Differences in helminthiasis profiles, but not in the iron status of the pregnant women, were found in the two geo-climatic areas studied. Prevalence of helminth infection especially hookworm was high, and significantly higher in wet-highland area. Hookworm infection was weakly correlated with TfR concentration and BIS. There is a need for parasitic control in the form of health education to be in place.

Wijanarti S.,Ehime University | Wijanarti S.,Gadjah Mada University | Putra A.B.N.,Ehime University | Putra A.B.N.,Indonesia International Institute for Life science | And 3 more authors.
Cytotechnology | Year: 2015

Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. Snake fruit peel is normally discarded as waste. In the present study, it was revealed that snake fruit peel has high bioactivities on stimulation of the immune system. Snake fruit peel extract (SFPE) was prepared by extracting snake fruit peel powder in water for 15 h at 4 °C. SFPE enhanced phagocytotic activity of murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells. Production of cytokine such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 was also stimulated by SFPE. The gene expression levels for these cytokines were elevated. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SFPE enhanced not only nuclear factor (NF)-κB but also mitogen-activated protein kinases signalling cascades such as JNK and p38 in macrophage. Overall findings suggested that SFPE has a potential beneficial effect to promote our body health through the stimulation of macrophage. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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