Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science

Kothamangalam, India

Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science

Kothamangalam, India
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Asokan G.S.,Tagore Dental College and Hospital | Jeelani S.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Science | Gnanasundaram N.,Saveetha Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Purpose of the Study: The present study was conducted to evaluate epigenetic alteration of five tumour suppressor genes in the oral precancer and cancer patients.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three groups namely control group of five people (normal healthy individuals), 10 oral leukoplakia patients and 10 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Incisional biopsy was done and part of the tissue sent for histological examination and part of tissue sent for hypermethylation study of p16, p15, hMLH, MGMT, E-cadherin tumour suppressor genes. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out for detecting methylation in promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes. The resultant PCR products were run in a 2.5% Agarose gel and the promoter hypermethylation status of the five tumour suppressor genes were analysed.Results: In oral Leukoplakia patients, 60% of methylation in the case of p16 gene, 30% of methylation in the case of MGMT gene and 60% of methylation in the case of E-cadherin gene. In oral Squamous cell carcinoma patients, 60% of methylation in the case of p16 gene, 40% of methylation in the case of MGMT, 60% of methylation in the case of E-cadherin gene, 20% in case of p15,10% in case of hMLH gene.Conclusion: Our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms of inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, such as aberrant methylation of p16 and E-cadherin genes occur early in head and neck tumourigenesis and might play a role in the progression of these lesions. © 2014, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

Vidyalakshmi S.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Aravindhan R.,SRM University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient.

Shivasakthy M.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Ali S.A.,Annamalai University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2011

The branch of Prosthodontics is not only a science but also an art of handling patients who present with limitations in continuing with normal procedures. One such limitation is the difficulty in mouth opening of the patient due to various reasons like fracture due to trauma, oral sub mucous fibrosis, TMJ ankylosis, etc. Impressions can be made for patients with restricted mouth opening, with a sectional impression tray that can be assembled and disassembled in the mouth and reassembled outside the mouth. This article describes a sectional stock tray system for making preliminary impressions. It may be used not only for individual dental arches, but also for patients with microstomia or constricted oral openings. This system allows many combinations of the right and left tray sizes and the forms to be assembled into a well-fitted anatomically-conforming tray in spite of the individual anatomic discrepancies.

Jain M.K.,Sri Hasanamba Dental College and Hospital | Ramesh C.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Science | Sankar K.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute | Lokesh Babu K.T.,Sri Hasanamba Dental College and Hospital
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the long term effectiveness of pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) with or without buccal advancement flap in the closure of oroantral fistula (OAF). A prospective clinical study involving 15 patients with chronic OAF was carried out. All cases were managed with pedicled BFP as the primary or secondary procedure. Cases with doubtful outcome were closed in two layers using BFP along with buccal advancement flap. Cases were followed for 3 months (1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks) to evaluate any postoperative complications such as wound dehiscence, necrosis or infection. Females (66.7%) in their third to fourth decade were commonly affected in the right posterior region (75%). Dental extraction (73.3%) followed by maxillofacial pathology was the most common causes for developing OAF. Only 2 of 15 cases were closed in two layers. Complete epithelialisation of all the cases was observed with no postoperative complications. Pedicled BFP is an effective and reliable flap for the repair of OAF. Cases of larger oral defects with doubtful outcome can be closed in two layers using BFP along with buccal advancement flap. © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Gajula P.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Karthikeyan R.,Surendera Dental College and Research Institute | Bhadrashetty D.,Suraksha Dental Specialities
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

We report a rare case of Hunter syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) with atypical presentation of mild mental retardation, acrocephalic head without corneal clouding, and multiple skin eruptions along with oral, dental, and radiographic findings. It is a rare syndrome with a very low prevalence of 1:100,000 births and as such the clinician should be aware of this syndrome.

Teja C.S.,SIBAR Institute of Dental science andhra Pradesh | Devy A.S.,SIBAR Institute of Dental science andhra Pradesh | Nirmal R.M.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Sunil P.M.,Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital | Deepasree M.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science
CytoJournal | Year: 2014

Background: Tumors are distinguished from normal tissues partly by their pronounced variability of cellular and nuclear dimensions. Therefore, such factors may be an indicator to assess whether the cells are malignant or not. Exfoliative cytology is a reliable tool in assessing such changes in the uterine cervix and has been used in the oral cavity also with success. The aims and objectives of the following study were to evaluate the malignant changes by assessing the quantitative parameters such as cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter and cytoplasmic area (CD, CP, CA) and nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter and nuclear area (ND, NP, NA) and cytoplasmic to nuclear ratio in the exfoliated cells of various subtypes of oral lichen planus (OLP) using cytomorphometry. Materials and Methods: Oral exfoliated cells from nineteen cases of histologically proven OLP (1 atrophic, 13 reticular, 4 erosive and 1 plaque) and ten controls with healthy mucosa were taken and stained by Feulgen-Rossenback reaction and cytomorphometric analysis was performed using an image analysis software. The parameters taken into account were CD, CP, CA and ND, NP, NA. Furthermore CA/NA was calculated. The parameters were statistically analyzed using the t-test. Results: Cytomorphometric analysis of all the parameters showed no significant difference between the control group and the reticular/plaque subtypes, whereas statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences was obtained between the control group and the atrophic/erosive subtypes group when compared using t-test. Conclusions: The cytomorphometric analysis of OLP shows that erosive/atrophic subtypes of OLP are at more risk and exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometry can be used as a tool to assess the malignant changes. © 2014 Poflee, et al.; licensee Cytopathology Foundation Inc.

Sudhakar R.,Sri Venkateshwaraa Dental College | Pratebha B.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2015

Background: The cementodentinal junction (CDJ) forms a biological and structural link between cementum and dentin. This biological link is regarded as a distinct tissue in its own right. Certain important proteins responsible for periodontal regeneration are said to be present in this tissue. Few studies have described the structure and composition of this layer by light and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic studies pertaining to CDJ in health and disease are few and documentation of periodontal pathological changes of CDJ is unclear. In the first phase of our study, the collagenous architecture of CDJ of healthy teeth has been reported. Aim: The objective of this study is to observe and report periodontal pathological changes in the fibrous or collagenous architecture of CDJ of periodontitis-affected teeth and discuss the probable clinical implications of CDJ in disease.Materials and Methods: Twenty periodontitis-affected teeth were collected and processed for observing under a scanning electron microscope. Results: The results are as follows: Increased width of interface at CDJ in periodontitis samples (7.1 μ) compared to that of healthy samples; fewer areas of fiber intermingling at CDJ in periodontitis samples as compared to healthy samples; frequent detachment of cementum from dentin during sodium hydroxide maceration of samples. Conclusion: It may be inferred from results that there is a possibility of a definite weakening of CDJ in periodontally affected root surfaces and we believe that clinical procedures such as scaling and root planning may have a detrimental effect on the cementodentinal attachment of periodontally involved root surfaces. © 2015 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.

Geethashri A.,NITTE University | Manikandan R.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Ravishankar B.,Sdm Center For Research In Ayurveda And Allied Health Science
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014

Microbial colonization as biofilm is one of the reasons for the emergence of drug resistant strains. In the oral cavity, drug resistant strains limit the efficacy of oral hygiene practices. Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus have been reported as drug resistant bacteria and producing oral biofilms in oral cavity. In this study we demonstrate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Piper betel and Pepper nigrum for antibiofilm activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus. The aqueous extracts were obtained by cold percolation method. The antibiofilm activity of plants extract was evaluated at 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml concentration. The percentage yield of extract was maximum in P. nigrum. The aqueous extract of A. indica significantly suppressed E. faecalis and S. aureus biofilm at 7.5 mg/ml at p<0.01 and p<0.001 significance level. P. betel significantly (p<0.001) disintegrated the E. faecalis biofilm at 30 mg/ml and S. aureus at 15 mg/ml (p<0.01). P. nigrum disintegrated E. faecalis and S. aureus biofilm significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001) at 30 and 15 mg/ml respectively. M. indica significantly (p<0.05) suppressed S. aureus biofilm at 30 mg/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of plants extract against oral pathogens. © 2014 A. Geethashri et al.

Yuvaraj V.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Science
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2015

Odontogenic fascial space infections are commonly encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. A retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological analysis and treatment response to odontogenic infections treated in the oral and maxillofacial unit of a Dental school is presented. A retrospective analysis of case records of all odontogenic infections that reported to the oral and maxillofacial surgery unit in a Dental school over a period of 2 years was performed. Epidemiological data, microbiological profile and treatment responses were analysed. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS statistical package. Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test and nonparametric tests were carried out. A total of 2,140 patients were included in this study. Mandibular third molars were the offending tooth in nearly 40 % of cases with 107 patients becoming symptomatic following a dental extraction procedure. All patients were treated with surgical incision and drainage, antibiotics and local wound care. More than 95 % cases needed intraoral incisions. Penicillin was the drug in most of the cases. The pterygomandibular space was the most commonly involved with 15 % reporting with multiple fascial space involvement. Microbiological analysis showed a predominance of aerobic gram positive organisms with Streptococcus sanguis most commonly isolated. Peptostreptococci and Propionibacterium were the common anaerobes isolated. More than 80 % of the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin. The average length of stay was 6.3 days. Inadequate documentation with regards to referral patterns, antibiotic history was commonly observed in case records. Penicillin continues to remain the drug of choice for a vast majority of maxillofacial infections of odontogenic origin. A delay in reporting can lead to worsening of symptoms with consequent increase in surgical morbidity and costs of treatment. Preventive dental care remains the best option available to mitigate the consequences of poor oral hygiene. Poor awareness among patient population for regular dental reviews and oral hygiene maintenance emphasises the need for sensitisation and education programs. © 2015 Association of Otolaryngologists of India

Shekar V.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Rangdhol V.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Baliah J.W.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science | Thirunavukarasu S.,Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental science
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Neurofibroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor and is the most frequent tumor of neural origin. Its presence is one of the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; a common hereditary disease occurring in one out of every 3000 births). The diagnosis can sometimes be made at birth, while in others the diagnosis is made later in life after the appearance of additional clinical criteria. Majority of the solitary neurofibromas are sporadic, while a few are associated with NF1 syndrome. Oral hard and soft tissue are affected by the tumor; however, the tongue is the most affected site. Gingival neurofibroma is an uncommon oral manifestation of NF. Here, we report a rare case of gingival neurofibroma in NF1 patient. One of the most feared complications of NF1 is its transformation into neurofibrosarcoma, which bears a very poor prognosis. Treatment of neurofibroma is surgical resection.

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