Bashir Z.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group |
Kondapalli V.K.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group |
Adlakha N.,Synthetic Biology and Biofuels Group |
Sharma A.,Insect Resistance Group |
And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013
Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches-termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers-and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.
Shrivastava A.,Bhilai Institute of Technology |
Verma A.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2016
Chhattisgarh is one of the major rice growing states of India, and paddy is the main crop, cultivated in about 76 % of area under agriculture. Mechanical weed control helps reduce the drudgery involved in manual hoeing. Manufacturing process of paddy weeder involves several operations that are to be performed sequentially, repeatedly, effectively, and hence, emphasis is to perform all the operations more efficiently as well. Jigs were designed with the help of software Solid Works and were then developed at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Raipur. The saving in cost of weeding was 60 %, and saving in time was 65 % compared to manual weeding. The improved jigs facilitated the production in 60 % of time taken by traditional jigs. Taguchi method was used to solve the problems related to improving the yield and productivity. Taguchi’s design of experiments (DOE) helped pin-point the source of yield and increase the yielding efficiency. The DOE based on L8-orthogonal array of Taguchi methodology were implemented. The paper outlines Taguchi methodology to optimize the control factors having high and low settings in the production of paddy weeder. The analysis of the results showed that the optimal combination for minimum time consumption in production process is maximum number of bending with minimum welding operation and minimum number of drilling operations. The optimized process by implementation of Taguchi methodology showed a reduction of 30 % in average production time. © 2016 The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan
Sharma N.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
International Journal of Zoological Research | Year: 2010
A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of treatment (on 5th day) with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5xl05 cells mL_1 to 3.25xl05 somatic cells mL_1 of milk and remaining quarters showed <2.1xl05 somatic cells mL_1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc.
Choudhary V.K.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Bhambri M.C.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Pandey N.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Sharma H.G.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2012
Water and temperature are critical for producing vegetable crops, especially during winter, when the availability of water is meager and temperature falls. Studies of drip irrigation and mulch were undertaken to find the effect on different growth and yield parameters in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four main and four subplots. Irrigation levels were placed on main plots and mulches on subplots with three replicates for each. All recorded vegetative parameters were higher with drip irrigation at 1.0 pan evaporation (Epan) and black polythene mulch. Physiological parameters such as photosynthesis rate (18.01 and 17.45 μmol m -2 s -1), transpiration rate (6.19 and 5.86 mmol H 2O m -2 s -1) and chlorophyll content (27.34 and 28.39; 39.22 and 41.27 SPAD, respectively at 50 and 100 days after planting) were maximal in crops with drip irrigation at 1.0 Epan and mulched with black polythene. Soil and canopy temperature were significantly higher on flood irrigation at 1.0 Epan. Soil temperature was higher with the black polythene mulch, but canopy temperature was higher with no mulch. A higher level of drip irrigation and black polythene mulch result in early picking with higher yields compared with flood irrigation and no mulch. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Chandel G.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
GM crops | Year: 2010
A highly precise molecular marker technique, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to characterize the changes in genomic structure occurred due to introduction of foreign gene and/ or due to the induced tissue culture stress during the development of various transgenic Bt rice populations. The transgenic rice plants having complex to simple Bt gene and selectable marker gene organizations were selected from the six insect resistant Bt rice lines. Our results clearly demonstrate that integration pattern, extent of rearrangement of foreign DNA and method of transformation may influence the genomic changes in transgenic rice populations. Eleven of fourteen AFLP primer combinations tested, generated distinct scorable banding pattern, which were further used in this study. Three primer combinations E-TA / M-CTT (IRRI-NPT), E-AG / M-CAC (Tulasi) and E-AA / M-CAG (IR 68899B) produced only monomorphic bands in all the transgenic and control rice plants .A percentage of 0.61% of 430 million bases of haploid rice genome were examined by the use of 11 AFLP primer combinations employed in this study. The DNA fingerprints generated by AFLP analysis, of each Bt rice population was compared with their respective non-transgenic control and was found to be > 97% similar. This indicated that the introduction of Bt gene into the genome of six rice varieties showed few genomic changes. The comparison shows that fewer changes were observed among the transgenic plants developed by Agrobacterium infection than that of developed through particle bombardment. Transgene integration pattern and their copy number were associated with the extent of genomic changes observed in the transgenic Bt rice varieties. AFLP fingerprints of the six transgenic rice varieties evidenced few, but consistent polymorphic bands between the transgenic individuals with different PI values. Relationships among the transgenic populations with their control rice plants were expressed in the form of dendrograms.
Gawali A.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014
The study was conducted in a nine-year old Ceiba pentandra (L) Gaertn. stands planted in a three tree spacing 4 × 4 m, 4 x 6 m and 4 × 8 m and two pruning regimes. Litterfall samples were collected from the field of C. pentandra for 12 months. The litterfall occurred throughout the year showing significant differences between tree spacing, pruning regimes and months. Total litterfall includes tree components (leaf litter + wood litter + flower litter + pod litter) ranged from 0.451 to 1.153 Mg ha-1 throughout the year. Total litterfall followed unimodal pattern with highest peak in April and lowest in August. In different tree spacings, total monthly litterfall, leaf litter contributed from 59 to 60%, wood litter from 30 to 31.6%, flower litter from 2.4 to 3.0% and pod litter from 6.2 to 6.8%. Litterfall was-: significantly higher in 4 × 4 m and lower in 4 × 8 m tree spacing. The study showed that litterfall was strongly and positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity. The C. pentandra stands with high density returned highest amount of C and nutrients to soil.
Dwivedi R.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Sharma D.K.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
Chlorophytum borivilianum (Family: Liliaceae), an important threatened medicinal herb is designated as 'Rare' in Red Data Book of Indian plants. Morphological as well as biochemical markers used in the authentication of herbal drugs have many limitations due to the impact of environmental conditions. Molecular markers therefore, are an important tool in quality assurance and preservation of germplasm of medicinal plant species in the plant kingdom. In this study, RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity in nine genotypes of C. borivilianum collected from different geographical regions of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Out of the 43 bands obtained, 26 were polymorphic, with (67.49) percent polymorphism, thus, revealing a high degree of polymorphism. Percentage of polymorphism detected with each primer was as high as 80.00 (OP L18) and as low as 33.30 (OP L12). The Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.609 to 0.810. The maximum similarity value was noticed between V 3 and V 5 genotypes collected from Lamni (C.G.) and Chitrakoot (U.P.), respectively. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Verma A.K.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2010
The scarcity of water is a critical limitation for sustainable productivity of rainfed rice in Chhattisgarh State of India. Amongst the available, possible alternatives to overcome the problem of unsustainable rice yield, direct row seeded rice cultivation was more promising to sustain water scarcity during dry spells. This research identified information on machinery inventory and utilization and the source wise energy use pattern for various operations in rainfed rice cultivation. It was predicted that, by the use of mechanical power, seedbed preparation and sowing operation might be completed before onset of monsoon. Timeliness of sowing of rice crop could utilize every unit of rain in the growing season. According to available resources, the developed model makes suggestions for decisions relating to the adoption of rice crop establishment technique.
Thakur T.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Swamy S.L.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Nain A.S.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014
The purpose of this study was to characterize the land use, vegetation structure, and diversity in the Barnowpara Sanctuary, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh, India through the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS. Land cover and vegetation were spatially analyzed by digitally classifying IRS 1D LISS III satellite data using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Later, the variations in structure and diversity in different forest types and classes were quantified by adopting quadratic sampling procedures. Nine land-cover types were delineated: teak forest, dense mixed forest, degraded mixed forest, Sal mixed forest, open mixed forest, young teak plantation, grasslands, agriculture, habitation, and water bodies. The classification accuracy for different land-use classes ranged from 71.23% to 100%. The highest accuracy was observed in water bodies and grassland, followed by habitation and agriculture, teak forest, degraded mixed forest, and dense mixed forest. The accuracy was lower in open mixed forest, and sal mixed forest. Results revealed that density of different forest types varied from 324 to 733 trees ha-1, basal area from 8.13 to 28.87 m2·ha−1 and number of species from 20 to 40. Similarly, the diversity ranged from 1.36 to 2.98, concentration of dominance from 0.06 to 0.49, species richness from 3.88 to 6.86, and beta diversity from 1.29 to 2.21. The sal mixed forest type recorded the highest basal area, diversity was highest in the dense mixed forest, and the teak forest recorded maximum density, which was poor in degraded mixed forests. The study also showed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was strongly correlated to with the Shannon Index and species richness. © 2014, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Dubey M.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University |
Chandel G.,Indira Gandhi Agricultural University
Plant OMICS | Year: 2010
With recent advances in the field of rice genome analysis and availability of large genomic data, we have surveyed and characterized resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in the genomic region of two gall midge resistance genes Gm4 and Gm5 which confer resistance against Asian rice gall midge biotypes 1, 2, 4 and 5. Both gall midge resistance genes, Gm4 and Gm5 have been mapped on Chromosomes 8 and 12 of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we have investigated the presence of RGAs in the rice genomic region between the co-dominant SSR markers RM210 and RM256 flanking Gm4 gene, spanning a region of 2.056 Mb on long arm of chromosome 8 and the genomic region between RM101 and RM309 flanking Gm5 gene and spanning 13.2 Mb regions on chromosome 12. By scanning Nipponbare sequences (japonica rice), we found 11 and 30 RGAs in the genomic regions of Gm4 and Gm5 genes respectively and further confirmed the sequences of each of the RGAs in indica (93-11) genome sequences. The RGAs were also characterized by sequence tag based methods of expression profiling viz ESTs and MPPS signature analysis to understand the functions of putative candidate genes. A total of 174 ESTs and 178 MPSS tags co-localized with the RGAs present in the genomic region of gall midge resistance gene Gm4. Similarly, 284 ESTs and 586 MPSS signatures were found to co-localize with the RGAs present in the genomic region of Gm5 gene. Based on the higher frequencies of ESTs (≥7 matches) and MPSS tags (>500 TPM value), three RGAs (RGA-Gm4-04, RGA-Gm4-05 and RGA-Gm4-08) associated with Gm4 and five RGAs (RGA-Gm5-02, RGA-Gm5-10, RGA-Gm5-14, RGA-Gm5-27 and RGA-Gm5-30) associated with Gm5 genes were identified as functional RGAs. The identification of functionally associated RGAs for two gall midge resistance genes forms the basis for the development of DNA markers for the marker assisted selection of gall midge resistance in rice.