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Clayton, Panama

Gaut C.,INDICASAT AIP | Gaut C.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Sugaya K.,University of Central Florida
Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2015

Articular cartilage defects often progress to osteoarthritis, which negatively impacts quality of life for millions of people worldwide and leads to high healthcare expenditures. Tissue engineering approaches to osteoarthritis have concentrated on proliferation and differentiation of stem cells by activation and suppression of signaling pathways, and by using a variety of scaffolding techniques. Recent studies indicate a key role of environmental factors in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to mature cartilage-producing chondrocytes. Therapeutic approaches that consider environmental regulation could optimize chondrogenesis protocols for regeneration of articular cartilage. This review focuses on the effect of scaffold structure and composition, mechanical stress and hypoxia in modulating mesenchymal stem cell fate and the current use of these environmental factors in tissue engineering research. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.

Henry M.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Cifuentes Jara M.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Rejou-Mechain M.,French Institute of Pondicherry | Rejou-Mechain M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 25 more authors.
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2015

Key message: Three options are proposed to improve the accuracy of national forest biomass estimates and decrease the uncertainty related to tree model selection depending on available data and national contexts. Introduction: Different tree volume and biomass equations result in different estimates. At national scale, differences of estimates can be important while they constitute the basis to guide policies and measures, particularly in the context of climate change mitigation. Method: Few countries have developed national tree volume and biomass equation databases and have explored its potential to decrease uncertainty of volume and biomasttags estimates. With the launch of the GlobAllomeTree webplatform, most countries in the world could have access to country-specific databases. The aim of this article is to recommend approaches for assessing tree and forest volume and biomass at national level with the lowest uncertainty. The article highlights the crucial need to link allometric equation development with national forest inventory planning efforts. Results: Models must represent the tree population considered. Data availability; technical, financial, and human capacities; and biophysical context, among other factors, will influence the calculation process. Conclusion: Three options are proposed to improve accuracy of national forest assessment depending on identified contexts. Further improvements could be obtained through improved forest stratification and additional non-destructive field campaigns. © 2015, The Author(s).

Govindaraju M.,Indian Institute of Science | Govindaraju M.,Acharya Nagarjuna University | Monica F.S.,Columbus University | Berrocal R.,INDICASAT AIP | And 2 more authors.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy | Year: 2012

Higher concentration of Aluminum (Al) has been observed in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and there was an apparent localization of the Al in chromatin in the brain cells. Studies of Al-DNA interaction showed that cross-linking occurs in DNAs of all base ratios, including poly d(AT).d(AT) and poly d(GC).d(GC). In the present investigation, interaction of Al with poly d(GC).d(GC) and poly d(AT).d(AT) was studied using Al-maltol, a hydrolytically stable Al-compound, at neutral pH. We found that Al at micromolar level caused conformational transition from B-DNA to Z-DNA in poly d(GC). d(GC). Chelation by EDTA could reverse the Z-DNA caused by Al-maltol back to B- DNA. We propose that Al(mal)2 + and Al(mal)2+, major cationic species of Al-maltol at neutral pH are involved in the above transition in poly d(GC).d(GC). The biological relevance of DNA transition in Alzheimer's disease is discussed.

Basavaraj K.H.,JSS University | Vasu Devaraju P.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Rao K.S.,INDICASAT AIP
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background Oxidative stress was implicated in the psoriasis disease development and may damage DNA leading to keratinocytes cell death. No serum biomarker was available for the oxidative DNA damage. Objectives To evaluate the 8-OHdG (8-Hydroxy guanosine) as reliable biomarker for the oxidative stress in psoriatic patients with severity. Methods A total of 30 patients were considered for the study and graded according to the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and 10 healthy controls. Blood was collected under aseptic condition, and serum was separated. Serum 8-OHdG and total antioxidant capacity was measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using '8-OHdG Check' and PAO kit (JaICA, Fukuroi City, Japan). Results The average serum 8-OHdG level in the control, mild, moderate and severe groups were 1.18 ± 0.93 ng/mL, 3.46 ± 0.82 ng/mL, 3.68 ± 0.67 ng/mL and 4.86 ± 1.7 ng/mL respectively. There was no significant difference in the average level of total antioxidant capacity of control, mild, moderate and severe groups, and the values presented were 295.88 ± 206 μmol/L, 1392.20 ± 225 μmol/L, 1199.57 ± 257 μmol/L and 1184.24 ± 207 μmol/L respectively. Conclusion Serum 8-OHdG levels could be used as good biomarker for the early diagnosis of psoriasis and its management. © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Narasingapa R.B.,Mahidol University | Jargaval M.R.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Pullabhatla S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Htoo H.H.,Mahidol University | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

The extracellular senile plaques observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are mainly composed of amyloid peptides produced from the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) by β- and γ-secretases. A third non-amyloidogenic α-secretase activity performed by the disintegrins ADAM10 and ADAM17 occurs in the middle of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ and liberates the large sAPPα neuroprotective fragment. Since the activation of α-secretase recently emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to treat AD, the identification of natural compounds able to trigger this cleavage is highly required. Here we describe new curcumin-based modified compounds as α-secretase activators. We established that the aminoacid conjugates curcumin-isoleucine, curcumin-phenylalanine and curcumin-valine promote the constitutive α-secretase activity and increase ADAM10 immunoreactivity. Strickingly, experiments carried out under conditions mimicking the PKC/muscarinic receptor-regulated pathway display different patterns of activation by these compounds. Altogether, our data identified new lead natural compounds for the future development of powerful and stable α-secretase activators and established that some of these molecules are able to discriminate between the constitutive and regulated α-secretase pathways. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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