Indiana University Southeast is a regional campus in the Indiana University system and is located in New Albany, Indiana, in Floyd County, which is in southern Indiana and part of the metropolitan Louisville, Kentucky, area. Wikipedia.
Reynolds C.A.,University of California at Riverside |
Finkel D.,Indiana University Southeast
Neuropsychology Review | Year: 2015
The etiologies underlying variation in adult cognitive performance and cognitive aging have enjoyed much attention in the literature, but much of that attention has focused on broad factors, principally general cognitive ability. The current review provides meta-analyses of age trends in heritability of specific cognitive abilities and considers the profile of genetic and environmental factors contributing to cognitive aging to address the ‘missing heritability’ issue. Our findings, based upon evaluating 27 reports in the literature, indicate that verbal ability demonstrated declining heritability, after about age 60, as did spatial ability and perceptual speed more modestly. Trends for general memory, working memory, and spatial ability generally indicated stability, or small increases in heritability in mid-life. Equivocal results were found for executive function. A second meta-analysis then considered the gap between twin-based versus SNP-based heritability derived from population-based GWAS studies. Specifically, we considered twin correlation ratios to agnostically re-evaluate biometrical models across age and by cognitive domain. Results modestly suggest that nonadditive genetic variance may become increasingly important with age, especially for verbal ability. If so, this would support arguments that lower SNP-based heritability estimates result in part from uncaptured non-additive influences (e.g., dominance, gene-gene interactions), and possibly gene-environment (GE) correlations. Moreover, consistent with longitudinal twin studies of aging, as rearing environment becomes a distal factor, increasing genetic variance may result in part from nonadditive genetic influences or possible GE correlations. Sensitivity to life course dynamics is crucial to understanding etiological contributions to adult cognitive performance and cognitive aging. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Hoffman D.J.,Indiana University Southeast |
Newland M.,Auburn University
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2016
Adult-onset methylmercury (MeHg) exposure produces sensorimotor impairment and related changes in behavior. The present study investigated MeHg effects on the microstructure of spontaneous wheel running in adult BALB/c mice chronically exposed to 0 ppm or 15 ppm MeHg via daily drinking water. To test the hypothesis that MeHg neurotoxicity is related to impaired calcium homeostasis, MeHg-exposed mice received 0, 20, or 200 ppm of the L-type calcium-channel blocker nimodipine in their daily chow diet. To examine MeHg-related changes in the microstructure of running, we partitioned spontaneous wheel running into activity epochs using a change-point algorithm and derived estimates of the within-bout response rate (primarily a motor-function measure), the duration of pausing between bouts (primarily a motivation measure), and the length of response bouts (a hybrid measure) from those epochs. Mice also performed regular rotarod sessions, providing a second measure of motor coordination. MeHg impaired rotarod performance and nimodipine dose-dependently mitigated that effect. MeHg decreased the distance run and within-bout running rate, especially during the final weeks of exposure and nimodipine attenuated and delayed that impairment. The interbout interval was only slightly but significantly affected by MeHg with no evidence of decline at the end of exposure and no influence of nimodipine. Despite the presence of impaired running, there was no evidence of fatigue through the course of long, three-hour sessions. These findings suggest that the microstructure of behavior provides sensitive and interpretable measures of MeHg effects, support the utility of bout analysis for separating motor and motivational effects of drug and toxicant exposure, and show selective neuroprotection by nimodipine. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hollenbeck J.E.,Indiana University Southeast
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016
Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Mcilvoy L.,Indiana University Southeast
AACN Advanced Critical Care | Year: 2012
Elevated temperature in patients with brain injury has been linked to increased hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay, increased morbidity, greater disability, and higher mortality. The prevailing medical opinion is that maintaining normothermia in patients with acute brain injury is beneficial. However, little evidence exists to support this recommendation. Nurses are responsible for diagnosing and treating fever, but evidence-based guidelines that would govern fever management for these patients do not exist. This article discusses what evidence is available to support the management of fever in patients with brain injury and in what areas evidence is lacking. © 2012, AACN.
Edmonds K.E.,Indiana University Southeast
Zoological Science | Year: 2013
Melatonin and the plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) have some structural similarity and, may thus exert comparable physiological effects on reproduction and growth. To test this possibility, I examined the effects of melatonin and auxin administration on reproductive and non-reproductive organ development in an animal model, the marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris. Juvenile males housed under 14L:10D conditions were injected daily for four weeks with saline, melatonin, auxin, or melatonin and auxin, and the development of the testes and other organs was assessed. Melatonin alone significantly inhibited the development of the testes, seminal vesicles, Harderian glands, and overall somatic growth, but not the spleen. Auxin did not affect any endpoint measured. When melatonin was administered simultaneously with auxin, the melatonin effects dominated in suppressing reproduction and growth. The administration of melatonin or auxin in the drinking water produced results similar to the effects of melatonin and auxin injections reported herein. Lastly, both melatonin and auxin in the drinking water failed to alter any short photoperiod-induced reproductive inhibition. These data suggest that structural similarities between melatonin and auxin do not result in similar postnatal effects on reproductive and non-reproductive organ development on a long photoperiod and further suggest that melatonin and auxin do not operate through a common physiological mechanism. © 2013 Zoological Society of Japan.
De S.,Indiana University Southeast
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013
The "constitutive equation"-free scale-bridging method connecting nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and continuum fluid mechanics, that had hitherto been applied only to a parallel-plates geometry, is extended to study the flow of a polymer melt in a cylindrical pipe subject to a velocity in the direction parallel to the cylinder's axis. The system, initially at rest, is given a velocity at the cylinder's surface, and the evolution of the velocity profile within the fluid is studied, along with the time taken for the velocity to propagate toward the cylinder's axis. The said time of propagation is found to increase with the boundary velocity - a fact in contrast with the case of a Newtonian fluid for which the time of propagation is expected to be independent of the boundary velocity. For a fixed value of the boundary velocity, the propagation time is found to increase with the cylinder radius according to a power law with an exponent that is smaller than the corresponding exponent for a Newtonian fluid. For the lower values of the boundary velocity and the lower values of the radius studied, a velocity overshoot is observed at the cylinder's axis - a manifestation of elastic behavior of the fluid. © 2013 American Physical Society.
De S.,Indiana University Southeast
Physics Education | Year: 2014
The familiar system involving a uniform ladder sliding against a vertical wall and a horizontal floor is considered again. The floor is taken to be smooth and the wall to be possibly rough - a situation where no matter how large the static friction coefficient between the ladder and the wall, the ladder cannot lean at rest and must slide down. Clever arguments that circumvent fully fledged mathematical analyses are presented to establish two more interesting properties: no matter how large the kinetic friction coefficient between the ladder and the wall, (a) the ladder must be speeding up at all times while sliding down, and (b) the ladder must break off the wall at some point during its slide. This work serves as an example of an intuitive rather than a mathematically detailed approach that often provides a shorter route to understanding the properties of a physical system, making it pedagogically valuable. It is also shown how the arguments presented can be easily extended to a non-uniform ladder as well. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Swain B.,Indiana University Southeast |
Otu E.O.,Indiana University Southeast
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2011
The competitive simultaneous extraction and separation of 14 lanthanide elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) from perchloric acid aqueous solution by solvent extraction using bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) as an extractant was studied. The effect of different parameters such as aqueous phase equilibrium pH and Cyanex 272 concentration in the organic phase on the extraction/separation behavior was investigated. From the experimental data a suitable cation exchange mechanism has been proposed. Dependencies of log D versus pH and log D versus log [Cyanex 272] and the cation exchange mechanism were analyzed and the proposed mechanism validated. Mathematical models (2D and 3D) were developed to correlate metal extractability. Hierarchical cluster analysis reveals the existence of (dis)similarity among elements in the series. Statistical cluster analysis divides the series into four different groups within the broad grouping of light and heavy lanthanides. An interesting diagonal relationship with consecutive elements was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
News Article | April 6, 2016
Shonda Rhimes is known for being the creator and producer of the television shows Grey’s Anatomy and Scandal, but within her family she was also known as the person who never said yes to anything. When her sister called her out on her knee-jerk reaction to say no to each and every invitation, Rhimes decided to commit to a year of saying yes to any unexpected offer that came her way. During the next 12 months, Rhimes said yes when she was asked to give the commencement speech at her alma mater, Dartmouth; yes to appearing on Jimmy Kimmel Live; and, most importantly, yes to playing with her three young daughters. She chronicled her experience the book A Year of Yes: How to Dance It Out, Stand in the Sun and Be Your Own Person, sharing that saying yes helped her get over her anxiety around public speaking and find a better sense of balance in her life. Rhimes’s reluctance to come out of her comfort zone isn’t uncommon, says Bernardo Carducci, professor of psychology and director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. "We all want to preserve our sense of self and our sense of competence," he says. "There’s a natural tendency for people to be hesitant when asked to do something outside of their comfort zones. The problem is when you do this too often. If your primary response becomes no, you will never discover and test your true limits." To get out of the rut of saying no, closely consider the invitation. "Is it totally out of your wheel house or is related to something you’ve done before?" asks Carducci, who suggests taking time to recall a past situation where you’ve done something similar and it was successful. "The problem with doing new things is that we automatically focus on the awkwardness and difficulty." The more you say yes, the easier it will become, and saying yes can impact your life in several positive ways. Here are six reasons why you should consider saying yes: When you say yes and try new things, you give others the courage to do the same, says Carducci. "It’s natural to feel awkward and self-critical, and think that everybody is judging you," he says. "But nobody is thinking about you; they’re thinking about themselves. When you’re willing to do something uncomfortable, it inspires other people to take action themselves." Being the first person on the dance floor, for example, often encourages others to join in. "People don’t judge you as being not good; they judge you as being brave," says Carducci. Our brains are constantly changing in response to what we experience; it’s a process called neuroplasticity, says Keith Rollag, author of What to Do When You’re New: How to Be Comfortable, Confident, and Successful in New Situations. "The implication is that if we can change what we experience, we can change our brain, and all the things that our brain facilitates, including intelligence, personality, habits, and attitudes," he says. "The easiest way to change what we experience is to put ourselves into new situations." Saying yes to new experiences is especially important as you get older, says Rollag. "Researchers have found that as we enter middle age, our lives tend to become more routine, and we unconsciously become more comfortable and less willing to seek change," says Rollag. As a result, aging often involves using less of our brains, and unused neurons stop generating new synapses and have fewer connections with other neurons. "Neuroscientists have found that they can promote neuron and synapse growth in the middle-aged and elderly by breaking up normal routines and putting people into new, challenging, interesting situations that force them to think and act in different ways," says Rollag. Senior leaders are looking for people who are willing to be risk takers and try new things, says Richard Citrin, author of The Resilience Advantage. "The pathway to career success these days is to gain a diverse portfolio of skills—operations, marketing, logistics, HR—rather than just focusing on a narrow specific area," he says. Regret is worse than rejection in the long run, says relationship advice columnist April Masini. "When you don’t say yes, you run the risk of discomfort, rejection, and realizing you made a mistake," she says. When we try something new, our brains release large amounts of dopamine, a neurochemical that helps neurons create the new synapses, says Rollag. "Long ago, this sudden release often kept us alive, putting us in rapid learning mode to deal with emerging threats like predators," he says. "These days new situations are rarely fatal, but the dopamine release still helps us to be focused, alert, and primed to learn new things." Dopamine also has another related effect on us; it makes us feel happy and alive. "We’ve all experienced the thrill of something new, and that excitement that comes from new accomplishments," says Rollag. "That’s dopamine at work. Scientists who study happiness have found that one of the best ways to bring more happiness into our lives is by meeting new people and trying new things."
News Article | August 24, 2016
I’ve always been shy. I tend to keep to myself, and I’m rarely the first one to talk to a stranger. I also hate talking in large groups; I usually just listen, and only give my opinion when asked. I’d resigned myself to the fact that I was an introvert and shyness was part of my personality, but I’ve always envied people who are friendly and outgoing. Turns out about 40% of adults believe they’re shy, according to research from Indiana University Southeast. While knowing I’m not alone was comforting, I wanted to see what being like the other 60% felt like. I decided to pretend to be extroverted for a week with the thought that it was temporary. I could go back to being "myself" when it was over. First, I had to understand the difference between being shy and being an introvert. "On the surface, a shy person and an introvert look exactly alike," says Bernardo Carducci, professor of psychology and director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. "The critical difference is on the inside." At a party, for example, an introvert stands to the side because they prefer to be there. "There’s less social stimulation, and they have a more sensitive nervous system and prefer to get away from noise," says Carducci. "They withdraw from the social world because they’re minimizing stimulation. They have friends, but they prefer social functions that are smaller and more sedate." Shy people, on the other hand, stand to the side at a party because they feel they have no choice, says Carducci. "They want to socialize, but they don’t know what to do," he says. "They are self-critical and think that in order to be successful at socializing, they have to be brilliant and the life of party. That’s not true, and this is where they shut themselves down." I definitely identified with being shy, and Carducci told me it would be okay to pretend to be outgoing and extroverted, but it might be better to learn how to be "successfully shy"—true to the person that I really am while also feeling comfortable meeting new people. It would just take practice. The first thing to do was to realize that the conversation process is not random. "It follows a specific process, like a golf swing," says Carducci. "It’s an acquired skill; people are not born with the gift of the gab. You can learn this." Here are the five steps: Get started. Prepare an opening line that reflects something you have in common. "‘This line is longer than I expected,’ or the classic, ‘Nice weather we’re having,’" suggests Carducci. "When you say something simple, you’re sending the message, ‘I’d like to talk to you. Do you want to talk to me?’" Introduce yourself. If the other person is open to a conversation, a personal introduction comes next, says Carducci. This includes telling them who you are and something about you. "Help yourself and be prepared for this," he says. Fish for topics. The next step is to throw out topics for possible discussion. Carducci says you could mention a recent vacation, an item in the news, such as the Olympics or elections, or something going on in your town. "You shouldn’t feel like a failure if people don’t respond to the topic you tossed out," he says. "It may take two or three attempts." Expand on a topic. When you throw out a topic that gets a response, use it to expand into something related, suggests Carducci. For example, if you’re discussing your vacation, you might talk about the food you ate or the music you heard. Terminate the conversation. The final step is a gracious end to your talking. "Make sure that you let the person know the conversation is coming to end," says Carducci. "You could say, ‘I must be going soon, but I had a great time chatting.’ Express gratitude and set the stage for future conversation." Shyness also involves excessive self-consciousness, excessive negative self-evaluation, and excessive negative self-preoccupation, says Carducci. Paying attention to my self-esteem would be the second half of my challenge. I had been teased in high school, and some of that negative talk still lingers. Surprisingly Judy Robinett, author of How to Be a Power Connector, can relate. She was bullied in junior high school and felt like she didn’t have much to offer people. "I didn’t feel like I fit in," she says. Robinett made a plan to overcome her shyness when she entered the corporate world and saw that others were getting job promotions even though they weren’t working harder. "Behind the corporate org chart there’s a whole other grid," she says. "The power players' network are influential in recommendations. I wanted to be in that circle, so I worked on improving my emotional IQ skills," says Robinett. The key is awareness, planning, and practice, says Robinett. She started by smiling and saying hello to others. Then she would break the ice by offering a genuine compliment. When she attended events, Robinett would identify the connector in the room and figure out a way she could help that person, knowing that they would most likely introduce her to others. Robinett also learned to join groups by looking at people’s toes: "If you walk into a room and see a circle of people with their toes inward, that’s a sign it’s a closed group and you can’t interrupt," she says. "If people are not quite so tightly grouped," she explains, "they’re open to having someone listen or join." It helped Robinett to keep a "victory log," a list of your accomplishments to review weekly when you start to feel like you’re not good enough. "These are things that can boost your self-esteem and prove to yourself that you’re the kind of person who takes action," she says. Armed with a conversation blueprint and a victory log, I ventured out into the world ready to connect. For a week I looked for opportunities to meet new people. I struck up conversations with cashiers and waiters. I volunteered to partner with a new member of my class at the gym, and got to know her. And I voluntarily sat with a group of strangers at an event even though I knew someone at another table. I collected a few business cards that might lead to new work. I even connected two people I thought should meet. For someone who is outgoing or extroverted, my week probably sounds like normal life, but for someone who is shy, it was a big step. I thought I might feel tired or overwhelmed, but I was actually energized by the experience, which means I may not be as introverted as I once thought. I’ll be attending a conference in a couple of weeks, and instead of dreading the networking part, I’m looking forward to making more new contacts. Being successfully shy takes regular practice. "Change what you do, and not who you are," Carducci says. "Eventually, you’ll be the kind of person who feels comfortable talking to others. When you start doing that," he says, "people will see you as somebody who lots of people like to talk to, and they will start coming to you."