Reynolds C.A.,University of California at Riverside |
Finkel D.,Indiana University Southeast
Neuropsychology Review | Year: 2015
The etiologies underlying variation in adult cognitive performance and cognitive aging have enjoyed much attention in the literature, but much of that attention has focused on broad factors, principally general cognitive ability. The current review provides meta-analyses of age trends in heritability of specific cognitive abilities and considers the profile of genetic and environmental factors contributing to cognitive aging to address the ‘missing heritability’ issue. Our findings, based upon evaluating 27 reports in the literature, indicate that verbal ability demonstrated declining heritability, after about age 60, as did spatial ability and perceptual speed more modestly. Trends for general memory, working memory, and spatial ability generally indicated stability, or small increases in heritability in mid-life. Equivocal results were found for executive function. A second meta-analysis then considered the gap between twin-based versus SNP-based heritability derived from population-based GWAS studies. Specifically, we considered twin correlation ratios to agnostically re-evaluate biometrical models across age and by cognitive domain. Results modestly suggest that nonadditive genetic variance may become increasingly important with age, especially for verbal ability. If so, this would support arguments that lower SNP-based heritability estimates result in part from uncaptured non-additive influences (e.g., dominance, gene-gene interactions), and possibly gene-environment (GE) correlations. Moreover, consistent with longitudinal twin studies of aging, as rearing environment becomes a distal factor, increasing genetic variance may result in part from nonadditive genetic influences or possible GE correlations. Sensitivity to life course dynamics is crucial to understanding etiological contributions to adult cognitive performance and cognitive aging. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Wynn A.N.,North Carolina State University |
Rueschhoff E.E.,Indiana University Southeast |
Franks R.G.,North Carolina State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
In flowering plants the gynoecium is the female reproductive structure. In Arabidopsis thaliana ovules initiate within the developing gynoecium from meristematic tissue located along the margins of the floral carpels. When fertilized the ovules will develop into seeds. SEUSS (SEU) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for the proper formation of ovules from the carpel margin meristem (CMM). The synergistic loss of ovule initiation observed in the seu ant double mutant suggests that SEU and ANT share overlapping functions during CMM development. However the molecular mechanism underlying this synergistic interaction is unknown. Using the ATH1 transcriptomics platform we identified transcripts that were differentially expressed in seu ant double mutant relative to wild type and single mutant gynoecia. In particular we sought to identify transcripts whose expression was dependent on the coordinated activities of the SEU and ANT gene products. Our analysis identifies a diverse set of transcripts that display altered expression in the seu ant double mutant tissues. The analysis of overrepresented Gene Ontology classifications suggests a preponderance of transcriptional regulators including multiple members of the REPRODUCTIVE MERISTEMS (REM) and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) families are mis-regulated in the seu ant gynoecia. Our in situ hybridization analyses indicate that many of these genes are preferentially expressed within the developing CMM. This study is the first step toward a detailed description of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that control the development of the CMM and ovule initiation. Understanding the regulatory hierarchy controlled by SEU and ANT will clarify the molecular mechanism of the functional redundancy of these two genes and illuminate the developmental and molecular events required for CMM development and ovule initiation. © 2011 Wynn et al.
Hollenbeck J.E.,Indiana University Southeast
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2016
Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
De S.,Indiana University Southeast
Physics Education | Year: 2014
The familiar system involving a uniform ladder sliding against a vertical wall and a horizontal floor is considered again. The floor is taken to be smooth and the wall to be possibly rough - a situation where no matter how large the static friction coefficient between the ladder and the wall, the ladder cannot lean at rest and must slide down. Clever arguments that circumvent fully fledged mathematical analyses are presented to establish two more interesting properties: no matter how large the kinetic friction coefficient between the ladder and the wall, (a) the ladder must be speeding up at all times while sliding down, and (b) the ladder must break off the wall at some point during its slide. This work serves as an example of an intuitive rather than a mathematically detailed approach that often provides a shorter route to understanding the properties of a physical system, making it pedagogically valuable. It is also shown how the arguments presented can be easily extended to a non-uniform ladder as well. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Mcilvoy L.,Indiana University Southeast
AACN Advanced Critical Care | Year: 2012
Elevated temperature in patients with brain injury has been linked to increased hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay, increased morbidity, greater disability, and higher mortality. The prevailing medical opinion is that maintaining normothermia in patients with acute brain injury is beneficial. However, little evidence exists to support this recommendation. Nurses are responsible for diagnosing and treating fever, but evidence-based guidelines that would govern fever management for these patients do not exist. This article discusses what evidence is available to support the management of fever in patients with brain injury and in what areas evidence is lacking. © 2012, AACN.