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Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is the premier urban campus of Indiana University and Purdue University in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. IUPUI offers undergraduate, graduate and professional degrees from both universities. Wikipedia.

Kim H.Y.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Walsh P.J.,University of Pennsylvania
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Cyclopropanes occur in a diverse array of natural products, including pheromones, steroids, terpenes, fatty acid metabolites, and amino acids, and compounds that contain cyclopropanes exhibit interesting and important pharmacological properties. These valuable synthetic intermediates can be functionalized, or their rings can be opened, and the synthetic utility and unique biological activity of cyclopropanes have inspired many investigations into their preparation. One of the most powerful methods to generate cyclopropanes is the Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation. Since the original studies in the late 1950s reported that IZnCH2I could transform alkenes into cyclopropanes, researchers have introduced various modifications of the original procedure. Significantly, Furukawa demonstrated that diethylzinc and CH 2I2 react to generate carbenoids, and Shi described more reactive zinc carbenoids that contain electron-withdrawing groups on zinc (XZnCHI2). Despite these advances, the development of catalytic asymmetric Simmons-Smith reactions remains challenging. Although researchers have achieved catalytic asymmetric cyclopropanation of allylic alcohols, these reactions have had limited success. One attractive approach to the synthesis of cyclopropanes involves tandem reactions, where researchers carry out sequential synthetic transformations without the isolation or purification of intermediates. Such a synthetic strategy minimizes difficulties in the handling and purification of reactive intermediates and maximizes yields and the generation of molecular complexity.This Account summarizes our recent effort in the one-pot enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of cyclopropyl alcohols. In one approach, an asymmetric alkyl addition to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes or asymmetric vinylation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes generates allylic zinc alkoxide intermediates. Directed diastereoselective cyclopropanation of the resulting alkoxide intermediates using in situ generated zinc carbenoids provides cyclopropyl or halocyclopropyl alcohols with high enantio-, diastereo-, and chemoselectivity. Other strategies employ bimetallic reagents such as 1-alkenyl-1,1-heterobimetallics or CH2(ZnI) 2 and provide access to di- and trisubstituted cyclopropyl alcohols. These methods enable facile access to skeletally diverse chiral cyclopropyl alcohols in high yields and stereoselectivities without the isolation or purification of the intermediates. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Joglekar Y.N.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

By investigating a parity- and time-reversal- (PT-) symmetric, N-site lattice with impurities ±iγ and hopping amplitudes t 0(tb) for regions outside (between) the impurity locations, we probe the interimpurity-distance dependence of the critical impurity strength and the origin of maximal PT-symmetry breaking that occurs when the impurities are nearest neighbors. Through a simple and exact derivation, we prove that the critical impurity strength is equal to the hopping amplitude between the impurities, γc=tb, and the simultaneous emergence of N complex eigenvalues is a robust feature of any PT-symmetric hopping profile. Our results show that the threshold strength γc can be widely tuned by a small change in the global profile of the lattice and thus have experimental implications. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source

Malkova A.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Ira G.,Baylor College of Medicine
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2013

Break-induced replication (BIR) is the pathway of homologous recombination (HR) conserved from phages to eukaryotes that serves to repair DNA breaks that have only one end. BIR contributes to the repair of broken replication forks and allows telomere lengthening in the absence of telomerase. Nonallelic BIR may lead to translocations and other chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, BIR initiated at sites of microhomology can generate copy number variations (CNVs) and complex chromosomal changes. The level of mutagenesis associated with DNA synthesis in BIR is significantly higher than during normal replication. These features make BIR a likely pathway to promote bursts of genetic changes that fuel cancer progression and evolution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Presse S.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis | Ghosh K.,University of Denver | Lee J.,Soongsil University | Dill K.A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-Σipilogâ¡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Wallace J.M.,Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis
Bone | Year: 2012

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has been in use for 30. years, and the form of SPM known as atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been around for 25 of those years. AFM has been used to produce high resolution images of a variety of samples ranging from DNA to carbon nanotubes. Type I collagen and many collagen-based tissues (including dentin, tendon, cartilage, skin, fascia, vocal cords, and cornea) have been studied with AFM, but comparatively few studies of bone have been undertaken. The purpose of this review is to introduce the general principles of AFM operation, demonstrate what AFM has been used for in bone research, and discuss the new directions that this technique can take the study of bone at the nanoscale. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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