Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Fort Wayne, IN, United States

Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne is a coeducational public university in Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States. Founded in 1964, IPFW is a cooperatively-managed regional campus of two state university systems: Indiana University and Purdue University. IPFW enrolls 13,459 undergraduate and postgraduate students in nine colleges and schools, including a branch of the Indiana University School of Medicine. IPFW offers more than 200 graduate and undergraduate degree programs through IU or Purdue universities. The university is the fifth largest public university in Indiana, and largest university in northeast Indiana. The university's 16 men's and women's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA Summit League and are known as the IPFW Mastodons. Wikipedia.

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Cooper Jr. W.E.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | Blumstein D.T.,University of California at Los Angeles
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2014

Economic escape theory predicts flight initiation distance (FID, predator-prey distance when fleeing from an approaching predator begins), but currently cannot account for an observed increase in FID as alert distance (AD, predator-prey distance when a prey becomes alert to a predator), or its surrogate, starting distance (SD, predator-prey distance when approach begins) increases. The flush early and avoid the rush hypothesis suggests that FID increases as AD increases due to costs of monitoring the predator. However, the AD-FID relationship and the cost of monitoring have been questioned. Nevertheless, recent evidence shows that FID remains correlated with AD even when spontaneous movements are removed. We discuss possible effects of monitoring that might explain the AD-FID relationship and ways to improve understanding of the influence of spontaneous movements. We disentangle possible effects of 3 distinct phenomena associated with monitoring predators and incorporate them into escape theory. Cost of fleeing might increase as an attentional monitoring cost increases as duration of approach increases. Cost of not fleeing might increase as AD increases due to a physiological cost of monitoring and because assessed risk might increase as duration of approach increases. The attentional cost and effect on assessed risk occur in addition to the effect of decreasing distance in prey that do not account for duration of approach, while assessing costs of fleeing and not fleeing. Some of these effects may operate simultaneously. We describe research needed to better understand the flush early hypothesis and proposed costs associated with monitoring approaching predators. © The Author 2013.

Cho M.-H.,Kent State University | Kim B.J.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Internet and Higher Education | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to explore variables explaining students' self-regulation (SR) for interaction with others, specifically peers and instructors, in online learning environments. A total of 407 students participated in the study. With hierarchical regression model (HRM), several variables were regressed on students' SR for interaction with others. These variables included demographic information, perceived importance of mastering content, perceived importance of interacting with the instructor, perceived importance of interacting with peers, and perceived instructor scaffolding for interaction. The results show that all the variables proposed above significantly explain 43% of the variance for SR for interaction with others. The combined variables show that instructors' scaffolding for interaction with others most significantly explains students' SR for interaction with others. Along with individual variables (e.g., perceived importance of mastering content), the results suggest that instructor scaffolding is critical for students' SR for interaction with others in online learning settings. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ross J.M.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2011

This study examines personality and situational correlates of self-reported reasons for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women and men court-ordered to batterers' intervention as IPV offenders. Women endorsed self-defense and men retaliation as their primary reasons for IPV. Both also endorsed emotion dysregulation as a reason for much of their violence. Women's partner violence was largely, but not exclusively, situationally motivated. Women's reasons for violence also related significantly to self-reported borderline personality symptomology. Men's reasons for IPV related primarily to their self-reported antisocial and borderline personality traits, not to situational factors. Thus, the IPV of some women and some men may be considered "characterological," in that it reflects something about the individual's character or personality. Control or domination of one's partner was not a primary reason for violence among women or men, despite the assumption on which many batterer intervention programs are based, that IPV is primarily a power and control tactic. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bi Z.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Sustainability | Year: 2011

A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers' requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers' needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today's manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i) to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii) to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii) to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today's manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed. © 2011 by the authors.

Adilov N.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2012

This paper analyzes the implications of forward markets under demand uncertainty when oligopolistic firms endogenously choose capacity levels. The paper shows that a forward market that occurs after the investment decision is committed does not increase social welfare if demand uncertainty is relatively small. This result is contradictory to Allaz and Vila (1993) findings that forward markets mitigate market power and enhance efficiency. However, a forward market improves social welfare if demand uncertainty is relatively large. The findings have important policy implications for capital-intensive industries where capacity expansion requires long lead time. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Cooper W.E.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2010

A growing body of evidence suggests that many prey attempt to prevent attack by signalling that they have detected a predator and are able to escape. Much of the evidence for pursuit deterrence is indirect in that signalling is not shown to reduce probability of attack. Indirect evidence is obtained by eliminating alternative hypotheses and demonstrating that signals are directed to predators. Other studies have shown that signalling is related to single predation risk factors. Because prey need not signal at low risk and should attempt to escape immediately when at high risk, pursuit-deterrent signals should occur most frequently at intermediate risk. Tests of escape theory have demonstrated that flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when prey flees) increases as risk associated with various risk factors increases. I show that in the lizard Callisaurus draconoides, which signals by waving its tail, probability and timing of signalling are affected by degree of risk for several factors that strongly affect flight initiation distance, specifically distance to refuge, speed and directness of approach, and predator persistence. Flight initiation distance increased with risk for all factors, but for all but one factor, relationships to risk differed between signalling and escape, and differences were readily predicted from functional differences between these behaviours. © 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Drouin M.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | Landgraff C.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2012

In this study, we explored how texting and sexting practices are related to attachment in college students' (n = 744) committed romantic relationships. Participants completed a survey containing questions about their texting and sexting practices and attachment styles with relationship partners. Results showed that texting and sexting are relatively common in young adult romantic relationships, and texting and sexting are both significantly related to attachment style. However, whereas text messaging was more common among those with secure attachments (i.e.; those with less attachment avoidance), sexting (both texts and pictures) was more common among those with insecure attachments, particularly those with higher attachment avoidance. Whereas anxious attachment predicted variance in sending sex text messages only, attachment avoidance contributed unique variance in sending both sex texts and pictures. This relationship was moderated by gender - avoidant men were more likely than avoidant women to send sex text and picture messages to relationship partners. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Escape theory predicts that flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins) increases as predation risk increases and decreases as cost of fleeing increases. Scant information is available about the effects of some putative predation risk factors and about interaction between simultaneously operating risk and cost of fleeing factors on flight initiation distance and distance fled. By simulating an approaching predator, I studied the effects of body temperature (BT), distance to nearest refuge, and eye contact with a predator, as well as simultaneous effects of predator approach speed and female presence/absence on escape behavior by a small ectothermic vertebrate, the lizard Sceloporus virgatus. Flight initiation distance decreased as BT increased, presumably because running speed increases as BT increases, facilitating escape. Distance to nearest refuge was unrelated to BT or flight initiation distance. Substrate temperature was only marginally related, and air temperature was not related to flight initiation distance. Eye contact did not affect flight initiation during indirect approaches that bypassed lizards by a minimum of 1m, but an effect of eye contact found in other studies during direct approach might occur. Predator approach speed and presence of a female interactively affected flight initiation distance, which increased as speed increased and decreased when a female was present. In the presence of a female, flight initiation distance was far shorter than when no female was present. The high cost of forgoing a mating opportunity accounts for the interaction because the difference between female presence and absence is greater when risk is greater. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zhang J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Stevenson S.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | Dorn H.C.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Shortly after the discovery of the carbon fullerene allotrope, C 60, researchers recognized that the hollow spheroidal shape could accommodate metal atoms, or clusters, which quickly led to the discovery of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs). In the past 2 decades, the unique features of EMFs have attracted broad interest in many fields, including inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, materials chemistry, and biomedical chemistry. Some EMFs produce new metallic clusters that do not exist outside of a fullerene cage, and some other EMFs can boost the efficiency of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 10-50-fold, in comparison with commercial contrast agents. In 1999, the Dorn laboratory discovered the trimetallic nitride template (TNT) EMFs, which consist of a trimetallic nitride cluster and a host fullerene cage. The TNT-EMFs (A3N@C2n, n = 34-55, A = Sc, Y, or lanthanides) are typically formed in relatively high yields (sometimes only exceeded by empty-cage C60 and C70, but yields may decrease with increasing TNT cluster size), and exhibit high chemical and thermal stability.In this Account, we give an overview of TNT-EMF research, starting with the discovery of these structures and then describing their synthesis and applications. First, we describe our serendipitous discovery of the first member of this class, Sc3N@Ih-C80. Second, we discuss the methodology for the synthesis of several TNT-EMFs. These results emphasize the importance of chemically adjusting plasma temperature, energy, and reactivity (CAPTEAR) to optimize the type and yield of TNT-EMFs produced. Third, we review the approaches that are used to separate and purify pristine TNT-EMF molecules from their corresponding product mixtures. Although we used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate TNT-EMFs in early studies, we have more recently achieved facile separation based on the reduced chemical reactivity of the TNT-EMFs. These improved production yields and separation protocols have allowed industrial researchers to scale up the production of TNT-EMFs for commercial use. Fourth, we summarize the structural features of individual members of the TNT-EMF class, including cage structures, cluster arrangement, and dynamics. Fifth, we illustrate typical functionalization reactions of the TNT-EMFs, particularly cycloadditions and radical reactions, and describe the characterization of their derivatives. Finally, we illustrate the unique magnetic and electronic properties of specific TNT-EMFs for biomedicine and molecular device applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Drouin M.A.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2011

In this study, I examined reported frequency of text messaging, use of textese and literacy skills (reading accuracy, spelling and reading fluency) in a sample of American college students. Participants reported using text messaging, social networking sites and textese more often than was reported in previous (2009) research, and their frequency of textese use varied across contexts. Correlational analyses revealed significant, positive relationships between text messaging frequency and literacy skills (spelling and reading fluency), but significant, negative relationships between textese usage in certain contexts (on social networking sites such as MySpace™ and Facebook™ and in emails to professors) and literacy (reading accuracy). These findings differ from findings reported in recent studies with Australian college students, British schoolchildren and American college students. Explanations for these differences are discussed, and future directions for research are presented. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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