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Fort Wayne, IN, United States

Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne is a coeducational public university in Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States. Founded in 1964, IPFW is a cooperatively-managed regional campus of two state university systems: Indiana University and Purdue University. IPFW enrolls 13,459 undergraduate and postgraduate students in nine colleges and schools, including a branch of the Indiana University School of Medicine. IPFW offers more than 200 graduate and undergraduate degree programs through IU or Purdue universities. The university is the fifth largest public university in Indiana, and largest university in northeast Indiana. The university's 16 men's and women's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA Summit League and are known as the IPFW Mastodons. Wikipedia.

Bi Z.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne

A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers' requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers' needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the consideration of sustainability becomes essential to today's manufacturing systems; a new challenge is how to evolve existing paradigms to accommodate the requirements of sustainability. In contrast to ample research activities on system paradigms in past decades, recent studies on system paradigms have been restricted, partially due to unclear research directions. Limited works can be found on conceiving new manufacturing system paradigms from the perspective of sustainability; most of the related literature concerns the new requirements of sustainability. The objectives of this work are (i) to examine the requirements of manufacturing systems in a wider scope; (ii) to revisit existing paradigms to clarify their limitations and bottlenecks; and eventually (iii) to identify some research directions, which will lead to a solution of sustainable manufacturing. To achieve these objectives, firstly, a brief description of today's manufacturing environment is provided. Secondly, the requirements of sustainability are discussed, and the relevant researches on system sustainability are surveyed. Thirdly, the reconfigurable system paradigm is focused, and the gaps between a reconfigurable manufacturing system and a sustainable manufacturing system are discussed. Finally, the future endeavors towards to the next-generation manufacturing system paradigms are discussed. © 2011 by the authors. Source

Cho M.-H.,Kent State University | Kim B.J.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Internet and Higher Education

The purpose of this study was to explore variables explaining students' self-regulation (SR) for interaction with others, specifically peers and instructors, in online learning environments. A total of 407 students participated in the study. With hierarchical regression model (HRM), several variables were regressed on students' SR for interaction with others. These variables included demographic information, perceived importance of mastering content, perceived importance of interacting with the instructor, perceived importance of interacting with peers, and perceived instructor scaffolding for interaction. The results show that all the variables proposed above significantly explain 43% of the variance for SR for interaction with others. The combined variables show that instructors' scaffolding for interaction with others most significantly explains students' SR for interaction with others. Along with individual variables (e.g., perceived importance of mastering content), the results suggest that instructor scaffolding is critical for students' SR for interaction with others in online learning settings. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

This study examines personality and situational correlates of self-reported reasons for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women and men court-ordered to batterers' intervention as IPV offenders. Women endorsed self-defense and men retaliation as their primary reasons for IPV. Both also endorsed emotion dysregulation as a reason for much of their violence. Women's partner violence was largely, but not exclusively, situationally motivated. Women's reasons for violence also related significantly to self-reported borderline personality symptomology. Men's reasons for IPV related primarily to their self-reported antisocial and borderline personality traits, not to situational factors. Thus, the IPV of some women and some men may be considered "characterological," in that it reflects something about the individual's character or personality. Control or domination of one's partner was not a primary reason for violence among women or men, despite the assumption on which many batterer intervention programs are based, that IPV is primarily a power and control tactic. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Escape theory predicts that flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when escape begins) increases as predation risk increases and decreases as cost of fleeing increases. Scant information is available about the effects of some putative predation risk factors and about interaction between simultaneously operating risk and cost of fleeing factors on flight initiation distance and distance fled. By simulating an approaching predator, I studied the effects of body temperature (BT), distance to nearest refuge, and eye contact with a predator, as well as simultaneous effects of predator approach speed and female presence/absence on escape behavior by a small ectothermic vertebrate, the lizard Sceloporus virgatus. Flight initiation distance decreased as BT increased, presumably because running speed increases as BT increases, facilitating escape. Distance to nearest refuge was unrelated to BT or flight initiation distance. Substrate temperature was only marginally related, and air temperature was not related to flight initiation distance. Eye contact did not affect flight initiation during indirect approaches that bypassed lizards by a minimum of 1m, but an effect of eye contact found in other studies during direct approach might occur. Predator approach speed and presence of a female interactively affected flight initiation distance, which increased as speed increased and decreased when a female was present. In the presence of a female, flight initiation distance was far shorter than when no female was present. The high cost of forgoing a mating opportunity accounts for the interaction because the difference between female presence and absence is greater when risk is greater. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Cooper W.E.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Animal Behaviour

A growing body of evidence suggests that many prey attempt to prevent attack by signalling that they have detected a predator and are able to escape. Much of the evidence for pursuit deterrence is indirect in that signalling is not shown to reduce probability of attack. Indirect evidence is obtained by eliminating alternative hypotheses and demonstrating that signals are directed to predators. Other studies have shown that signalling is related to single predation risk factors. Because prey need not signal at low risk and should attempt to escape immediately when at high risk, pursuit-deterrent signals should occur most frequently at intermediate risk. Tests of escape theory have demonstrated that flight initiation distance (predator-prey distance when prey flees) increases as risk associated with various risk factors increases. I show that in the lizard Callisaurus draconoides, which signals by waving its tail, probability and timing of signalling are affected by degree of risk for several factors that strongly affect flight initiation distance, specifically distance to refuge, speed and directness of approach, and predator persistence. Flight initiation distance increased with risk for all factors, but for all but one factor, relationships to risk differed between signalling and escape, and differences were readily predicted from functional differences between these behaviours. © 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Source

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