Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States. With over 40,000 students, IU Bloomington is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and its largest university.It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs the comprise part of IU, including the Jacobs School of Music, the IU School of Informatics and Computing, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the IU School of Library and Information Science, and the IU School of Education.With a Fall 2014 total campus enrollment of 42,634 students, IU Bloomington is the largest university campus in the state. While 55.2% of the student body was from Indiana, students from 49 of the 50 states, Washington D.C., and 165 foreign nations were also enrolled. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with about 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Indiana Hoosiers. The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Wikipedia.
Bush K.,Indiana University Bloomington
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010
Resistance to β-lactams and other antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae is frequently associated with plasmidic resistance determinants that are easily transferred among species. β-Lactamase-mediated resistance is increasingly associated with plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, specifically the CTX-M family of ESBLs, the KPC family of serine carbapenemases, and the VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamases. Although clonal dispersion of resistant isolates was seen initially, more diverse genetic platforms are being observed as variations of mobile elements are transferred worldwide. These enzymes are now appearing in multiple combinations of ESBLs and carbapenemases, thereby conferring resistance to virtually all β-lactam antibiotics. © 2010.
Kijimoto T.,Indiana University Bloomington
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012
Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.
Attari S.Z.,Indiana University Bloomington
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water.
Goodson J.L.,Indiana University Bloomington
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2013
Although behavioral neuroendocrinologists often discuss " sociality" as a unitary variable, the term encompasses a wide diversity of behaviors that do not evolve in a linked fashion across species. Thus grouping, monogamy, paternal care, cooperative breeding/alloparental care, and various other forms of social contact are evolutionarily labile and evolve in an almost cafeteria-like fashion, indicating that relevant neural mechanisms are at least partially dissociable. This poses a challenge for the study of the nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologous neuropeptides), because nonapeptides are known to modulate all of these aspects of sociality in one species or another. Hence, we may expect substantial diversity in the behavioral functions of nonapeptides across species, and indeed this is the case. Further compounding this complexity is the fact that the pleiotropic contributions of nonapeptides to social behavior are matched by pleiotropic contributions to physiology. Given these considerations, single " model systems" approaches to nonapeptide function will likely not have strong predictive validity for humans or other species. Rather, if we are to achieve predictive validity, we must sample a wide diversity of species in an attempt to derive general principles. In the present review, I discuss what is known about functional evolution of nonapeptide systems, and critically evaluate general assumptions about bonding and other functions that are based on the model systems approach. From this analysis I attempt to summarize what can and cannot be generalized across species, and highlight critical gaps in our knowledge about the functional evolution of nonapeptide systems as it relates to dimensions of sociality. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kostelecky V.A.,Indiana University Bloomington |
Russell N.,Northern Michigan University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011
This work tabulates measured and derived values of coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation in the standard-model extension. Summary tables are extracted listing maximal attained sensitivities in the matter, photon, and gravity sectors. Tables presenting definitions and properties are also compiled. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Sporns O.,Indiana University Bloomington
Nature Methods | Year: 2013
New methods for mapping synaptic connections and recording neural signals generate rich and complex data on the structure and dynamics of brain networks. Making sense of these data will require a concerted effort directed at data analysis and reduction as well as computational modeling. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Radicchi F.,Indiana University Bloomington
Physical Review X | Year: 2014
Networks in the real world do not exist as isolated entities, but they are often part of more complicated structures composed of many interconnected network layers. Recent studies have shown that such mutual dependence makes real networked systems potentially exposed to atypical structural and dynamical behaviors, and thus there is an urgent necessity to better understand the mechanisms at the basis of these anomalies. Previous research has mainly focused on the emergence of atypical properties in relation to the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions. In this paper, we show that an additional ingredient plays a fundamental role for the possible scenario that an interconnected network can face: the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees. For sufficiently high amounts of correlation, an interconnected network can be tuned, by varying the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions, in distinct topological and dynamical regimes. When instead the correlation between intraand interlayer degrees is lower than a critical value, the system enters in a supercritical regime where dynamical and topological phases are no longer distinguishable.
Radicchi F.,Indiana University Bloomington
Nature Physics | Year: 2015
The function of a real network depends not only on the reliability of its own components, but is affected also by the simultaneous operation of other real networks coupled with it. Whereas theoretical methods of direct applicability to real isolated networks exist, the frameworks developed so far in percolation theory for interdependent network layers are of little help in practical contexts, as they are suited only for special models in the limit of infinite size. Here, we introduce a set of heuristic equations that takes as inputs the adjacency matrices of the layers to draw the entire phase diagram for the interconnected network. We demonstrate that percolation transitions in interdependent networks can be understood by decomposing these systems into uncoupled graphs: the intersection among the layers, and the remainders of the layers. When the intersection dominates the remainders, an interconnected network undergoes a smooth percolation transition. Conversely, if the intersection is dominated by the contribution of the remainders, the transition becomes abrupt even in small networks. We provide examples of real systems that have developed interdependent networks sharing cores of 'high quality edges to prevent catastrophic failures. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Lynch M.,Indiana University Bloomington
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010
Although mutation provides the fuel for phenotypic evolution, it also imposes a substantial burden on fitness through the production of predominantly deleterious alleles, a matter of concern from a human-health perspective. Here, recently established databases on de novomutations formonogenic disorders are used to estimate the rateandmolecular spectrumof spontaneously arisingmutations and to derive a number of inferences with respect to eukaryotic genome evolution. Although the human per-generation mutation rate is exceptionally high, on a per-cell division basis, the human germline mutation rate is lower than that recorded for any other species. Comparison with data from other species demonstrates a universal mutational bias toward A/Tcomposition,andleads to thehypothesis that genome-wide nucleotide composition generally evolves to the point at which the power of selection in favor of G/C is approximately balanced by the power of random genetic drift, such that variation in equilibrium genome-wide nucleotide composition is largely defined by variation inmutation biases.Quantification of the hazards associated with introns reveals that mutations at key splice-site residues are a major source of human mortality. Finally, a consideration of the long-term consequences of current human behavior for deleterious-mutation accumulation leads to the conclusion that a substantial reduction in humanfitness can be expected over the next few centuries in industrialized societies unless novel means of genetic intervention are developed.
Lynch M.,Indiana University Bloomington
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2010
Understanding the mechanisms of evolution requires information on the rate of appearance of new mutations and their effects at the molecular and phenotypic levels. Although procuring such data has been technically challenging, high-throughput genome sequencing is rapidly expanding knowledge in this area. With information on spontaneous mutations now available in a variety of organisms, general patterns have emerged for the scaling of mutation rate with genome size and for the likely mechanisms that drive this pattern. Support is presented for the hypothesis that natural selection pushes mutation rates down to a lower limit set by the power of random genetic drift rather than by intrinsic physiological limitations, and that this has resulted in reduced levels of replication, transcription, and translation fidelity in eukaryotes relative to prokaryotes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.