Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, including approximately 43,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus and approximately 31,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis campus. Wikipedia.
Thoits P.A.,Indiana University
Journal of Health and Social Behavior | Year: 2011
Over the past 30 years investigators have called repeatedly for research on the mechanisms through which social relationships and social support improve physical and psychological well-being, both directly and as stress buffers. I describe seven possible mechanisms: social influence/social comparison, social control, role-based purpose and meaning (mattering), self-esteem, sense of control, belonging and companionship, and perceived support availability. Stress-buffering processes also involve these mechanisms. I argue that there are two broad types of support, emotional sustenance and active coping assistance, and two broad categories of supporters, significant others and experientially similar others, who specialize in supplying different types of support to distressed individuals. Emotionally sustaining behaviors and instrumental aid from significant others and empathy, active coping assistance, and role modeling from similar others should be most efficacious in alleviating the physical and emotional impacts of stressors. © American Sociological Association 2011.
Olson K.R.,Indiana University
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012
Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is garnering increasing interest as a biologically relevant signaling molecule. The effects of H 2S have now been observed in virtually every organ system and numerous physiological processes. Recent Advances: These studies have not only opened a new field of "gasotransmitter" biology, they have also led to the development of synthetic H2S "donating" compounds with the potential to be parlayed into a variety of therapeutic applications. Critical Issues: Often lost in the exuberance of this new field is a critical examination or understanding of practical aspects of H2S chemistry and biology. This is especially notable in the areas of handling and measuring H2S, evaluating biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, and separating physiological from pharmacological responses. Future Directions: This brief review describes some of the pitfalls in H2S chemistry and biology that can lead or have already led to misleading or erroneous conclusions. The intent is to allow individuals entering or already in this burgeoning field to critically analyze the literature and to assist them in the design of future experiments. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Fuqua J.S.,Indiana University
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013
Precocious puberty is a common problem affecting up to 29 per 100 000 girls per year. The earliest identified neuroendocrine change in early puberty thus far is increased kisspeptin secretion from the arcuate nucleus and the anteroventral paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The regulation of kisspeptin secretion is not well understood, but neurokinin B and dynorphin provide autocrine regulation. The etiologies of precocious puberty may be subdivided into GnRH-dependent and GnRH-independent causes. GnRH-dependent precocious puberty, often called central precocious puberty (CPP), is usually treated with GnRH analogs. Newer developments in the treatment of CPP include expanded data on the safety and efficacy of the subdermal histrelin implant, which is useful for long-term treatment, although removal may be difficult in some cases. Preliminary data suggest that the implant may be left in place for up to 2 years without loss of biochemical suppression. In the last 2 years, more data have been published concerning extended-release leuprolide acetate injections that indicate that the 11.25-mg dose may not provide full biochemical suppression but may clinically suppress signs of puberty, including the accelerated growth velocity and advanced skeletal maturation seen in CPP. Treatment options for familial male-limited precocious puberty and McCune-Albright syndrome are expanding as well, although data are preliminary. Long-term outcome studies of CPP indicate overall good menstrual and reproductive function, but the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome may be higher than in the general population. Remarkably few studies have evaluated the behavioral and psychological outcomes of precocious puberty, in contrast to early normal maturation. Additional outcome studies of endocrine, metabolic, and psychological effects of CPP are clearly needed. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.
Maluccio M.,Indiana University |
Covey A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2012
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the few cancers in which a continued increase in incidence has been observed over several years. As such, there has been a focus on safe and accurate diagnosis and the development of treatment algorithms that take into consideration the unique complexities of this patient population. In the past decade, there have been improvements in nonsurgical treatment platforms and better standardization with respect to the diagnosis and patient eligibility for liver transplant. How to navigate patients through the challenges of treatment is difficult and depends on several factors: 1) patient-related variables such as comorbid conditions that influence treatment eligibility; 2) liver-related variables such as Child-Pugh score; and 3) tumor-related variables such as size, number, pattern of spread within the liver, and vascular involvement. The objectives of this review are to put into perspective the current treatment options for patients with HCC, the unique advantages and disadvantages of each treatment approach, and the evidence that supports the introduction of sorafenib into the multidisciplinary management of HCC. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Conway S.J.,Indiana University
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS | Year: 2014
Periostin, also termed osteoblast-specific factor 2, is a matricellular protein with known functions in osteology, tissue repair, oncology, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and in various inflammatory settings. However, most of the research to date has been conducted in divergent and circumscribed areas meaning that the overall understanding of this intriguing molecule remains fragmented. Here, we integrate the available evidence on periostin expression, its normal role in development, and whether it plays a similar function during pathologic repair, regeneration, and disease in order to bring together the different research fields in which periostin investigations are ongoing. In spite of the seemingly disparate roles of periostin in health and disease, tissue remodeling as a response to insult/injury is emerging as a common functional denominator of this matricellular molecule. Periostin is transiently upregulated during cell fate changes, either physiologic or pathologic. Combining observations from various conditions, a common pattern of events can be suggested, including periostin localization during development, insult and injury, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix restructuring, and remodeling. We propose mesenchymal remodeling as an overarching role for the matricellular protein periostin, across physiology and disease. Periostin may be seen as an important structural mediator, balancing appropriate versus inappropriate tissue adaption in response to insult/injury.