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INDIANAPOLIS, IN, United States

Karlinsey R.L.,Indiana Nanotech, Llc
Advances in dental research | Year: 2012

With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native β-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of β-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach.


Trademark
Indiana Nanotech, Llc | Date: 2008-03-18

Chemical additives for use in the manufacture of a wide variety of goods; Chemical additives for use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, vitamins; Chemical additives for use as cleansing, deodorizing and refreshing ingredients in the manufacture of mouth sprays, dental cements and medicines for dental purposes; Oxides; Synthetic and natural oxides in the form of powders, liquids, pastes and granules; Specialty chemicals, namely, chemical additives for general industrial use in the manufacture of a wide variety of goods. Coatings sold as an integral component of medical stents and other implantable medical devices.


Mathews M.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Amaechi B.T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ramalingam K.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Ccahuana-Vasquez R.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the remineralisation of eroded enamel by NaF rinses in an intra-oral model. Methods: Serving as their own control, subjects (N = 80) participated in a randomised, four-leg (20 subjects/leg), 28-day, parallel design study. In each leg, each participant wore a customised orthodontic bracket attached to a mandibular molar that contained one tooth block having an initial erosive lesion (0.3% citric acid, pH 3.75, 2 h). Within the 28-day period, participants engaged in twice-daily brushing for 1 min with a fluoride-free dentifrice followed by 1-min rinsing with one of the following aqueous rinses: fluoride-free (0 ppm F), 225 ppm F, 225 ppm F plus functionalised β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP), and 450 ppm F. Following intra-oral exposure, appliances were removed and specimens were analysed using surface microhardness (SMH) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.05) remineralisation, as determined by SMH and TMR, of the eroded enamel relative to baseline occurred for each fluoride system. No significant differences in SMH were observed amongst the fluoride groups (p > 0.05), however, 225 ppm plus fTCP produced 27% and 7% SMH indent length reduction relative to 225 ppm F and 450 ppm F, respectively. No significant differences in TMR were observed amongst the fluoride groups (p > 0.05), however, 225 ppm F plus fTCP and 450 ppm F produced significant (p < 0.05) mineral gains relative to the fluoride-free control, whilst 225 ppm F did not (p > 0.05). Relative to the 225 ppm F group, the 450 ppm F and 225 ppm F plus fTCP groups produced 65% and 61% greater mineral change, respectively. Conclusions: These pilot results demonstrate this model is sensitive to fluoride and that addition of fTCP to an aqueous rinse containing 225 ppm F may provide significant remineralisation benefits. Therefore, the combination of relatively low levels of fluoride and fTCP might be an effective alternative to a high fluoride treatment for anti-erosion benefits. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Mackey A.,Indiana Nanotech, Llc | Karlinsey R.L.,Indiana Nanotech, Llc | Chern A.,Indiana University | Chu T.G.,Indiana University
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics | Year: 2010

Metal oxides have been explored as potential surgical implant coatings designed to incorporate the biocompatibility of the surface oxide with the durable mechanical properties of the underlying metal. A novel anodisation process has been designed which generates an oxide composed of crystalline Nb2O5 microcones interspersed in an amorphous interface oxide. Thin sheets of niobium metal were anodised in a HF(aq) electrolyte for 1, 2 and 4 hrs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the oxide features for each anodisation time. Larger and fewer microcones resulted from increased anodisation time. Due to the requirement of surgical implants to be autoclaved before implantation, the microcone features were analysed using SEM before and after autoclaving. Statistical analysis showed that the microcone features changed very little after autoclaving. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells cultured on the autoclaved discs indicated that the 1 h and 4 h groups support the highest amount of cell proliferation. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 102.11K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The worldwide market for implant-based dental products is forecasted to approach 3.5 billion by 2010, and although only 9% of the global dental market is allocated to dental implants, it is the fastest growing segment at a rate of 15% per year. These projections could imply that although significant improvements in overall oral health are observed globally, there remains significant problems associated with prosthodontic devices, including versatility, longevity, and performance. More specifically, some common failures associated with existing implant materials, dental or orthopedic, include aseptic loosening, long healing times, and delamination of bioactive coatings from the implant substrate. Therefore, by bridging the fields of dentistry, bioengineering, and materials science we propose to develop a unique implant coating that could function in harmony with existing implant substrates to induce rapid biomimetic processes may provide a significant public health benefit. The long-term goal of this research endeavor is to develop a unique niobium oxide coating that forms strong interfacial bonds with the implant substrate while stimulating rapid osseointegration when implanted in vivo for high load-bearing applications, such as hip and tooth replacements. We hypothesize this nano-inspired niobium oxide coating exhibits incredible bioactivity by virtue of its self-assembled arrangement created through rapid oxidation in an aqueous electrolyte. The resulting oxide is comprised of micron-sized cones that manifest crystal sites amenable for epitaxial growth of apatite as well as topology that favors cellular attachment and growth. In this Phase 1 research proposal to the NIDCR, we propose to address the following specific aims:1) deposition of niobium metal onto Ti6Al4V substrates followed by optical and mechanical verification measurements, 2) optimizing niobium metal thickness after anodization via scratch tests, and 3) validation of niobium oxide microcone-induced bioactivity in vivo. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The worldwide market for implant-based dental products is forecasted to approach 3.5 billion by 2010, and although only 9% of the global dental market is allocated to dental implants, it is the fastest growing segment at a rate of 15% per year. These projections could imply that although significant improvements in overall oral health are observed globally, there remains significant problems associated with prosthodontic devices, including versatility, longevity, and performance. The long-term goal of this research endeavor is to develop a unique niobium oxide coating that forms strong interfacial bonds with the implant substrate while stimulating rapid osseointegration when implanted in vivo for high load-bearing applications, such as hip and tooth replacements.

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