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Indianapolis, IN, United States

Shapiro A.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Cooper D.L.,Novo Nordisk AS
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

General guidelines exist for the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) to maintain haemostasis during surgery in congenital haemophilia A and B patients with high responding inhibitors (CHwI). Individual surgical plans are required and based upon historical therapy response, adverse events and anticipated procedure. Surgical interventions are feasible, yet it remains unclear how many US hemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) perform procedures in this fragile population. To better understand the US HTC surgical experience in CHwI patients and the number/types of procedures performed, a 21-question survey was sent to 133 US HTCs, with follow-up for response clarification and to non-responders. 98/133 HTCs (74%) responded, with 87 currently treating CHwI patients. In the last decade, 76/85 HTCs performed 994 surgeries on CHwI patients. Sites were experienced in the following procedures: central line insertion/removal (73 HTCs), dental (58), orthopaedic (52), abdominal (23), cardiovascular (14) and otolaryngologic (11). Experience with orthopaedic surgeries included synovectomies - arthroscopic (23 HTCs), radioisotopic (22), and open (7); joint replacement (18); fracture repair (14); and arthrodesis (8). Treatment modalities included rFVIIa bolus (83 HTCs) or continuous infusions (9), plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC) (55), antifibrinolytics (51), topical haemostatic agents (29), factor VIII (16) and fibrin sealants (14). Protocols for bypassing agents were used by 31/92 (33%) HTCs. Most US HTCs surveyed care for CHwI patients (74%) and have experience in minor surgery; fewer HTCs reported complex orthopaedic surgical experience. Identification of best practices and surgical barriers is required to guide future initiatives to support these patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Miller C.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Rice A.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Boylan B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

Background: Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety and assessment of population trends. Methods: Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA) and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results: NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU) < 0.5 and positive on 42/42 specimens (100%) with NBU ≥ 2.0 and 43/80 specimens (53.8%) with NBU 0.5-1.9. Among specimens with positive NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0-1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5-0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P = 0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, five (23.8%) with 0.7-1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5-1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions: FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5-1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Krishnan S.,Biogen Idec | Vietri J.,Kantar Health | Furlan R.,Kantar Health | Duncan N.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
Haemophilia | Year: 2015

Severe haemophilia is associated with bleeding into joints and development of arthropathy. Prophylactic treatment with infusion of replacement clotting factor is known to prevent bleeding, preserve joint functioning and result in higher health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than episodic treatment; however, adhering to standard prophylaxis schedules can be difficult, and little is known about the relationship between adherence to prophylactic treatment and outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported adherence to prophylaxis and health outcomes, including HRQoL and bleeding episodes. Adults with haemophilia (n = 55) and caregivers of children with haemophilia (n = 55) in Australia, Canada, and the United States completed an online questionnaire which included measures of HRQoL (SF-12v2 for adults and SF-10 for caregivers of children), self-reported bleeding episodes, and the VERITAS-Pro measure of adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia. Regression analysis was used to test the association between VERITAS-Pro total score and outcomes. Poorer adherence (higher VERITAS-Pro scores) was associated with a greater number of self-reported bleeding episodes in the past year among adults (p < 0.01), more days of work/school missed among paediatric patients (p < 0.01), and lower physical health status scores among paediatric patients (p < 0.05). This study highlights the benefits of adherence to prophylaxis among those with severe haemophilia and provides evidence for the utility of the VERITAS-Pro by demonstrating a relationship between adherence and outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Soucie J.M.,National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities | Peyvandi F.,University of Milan | Aschman D.J.,American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network | Dimichele D.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Rare coagulation disorders (RCDs) present a considerable and multifaceted public health risk. Although inherited RCDs affect a minor segment of any local healthcare delivery system, their global impact is major and highlight the challenges of delivering healthcare services to any rare disease population. These include but are not limited to: (1) a general lack of knowledge about and familiarity with the genetic and clinical implications of the disorder among affected patients, and both urgent and specialty care providers; (2) the potential for preventable morbidity and mortality related to delayed diagnosis and treatment; (3) the lack of safe and effective therapies; and (4) minimal research activity to establish and improve standards of care. A multiagency national partnership has established an approach to address these problems through development of a clinical, genetic, and treatment-related web-based data-collection tool that will: (1) generate a reliable, sufficient knowledge base for these disorders; (2) facilitate new product licensure through subject identification and access to comparative historical treatment data; and (3) serve as an effective tool for outcomes research and post-licensure product surveillance. To maximize impact, this database is being harmonized with a European data-collection effort. Database development and harmonization is in progress. A resource library was completed and disseminated to major national and international bleeding disorder websites to provide state-of-the-art patient and provider education on each RCD. We believe that this model is effective and adaptable to other rare conditions. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Shapiro A.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Prophylactic treatment with replacement clotting factor is the recommended regimen for patients with severe hemophilia to prevent bleeding episodes. However, currently available replacement clotting factors are limited by their relatively short half-lives and require intravenous injections up to three times weekly to maintain protective levels, which can impact compliance and, thus, patient outcomes. Areas covered: The potential advantages of long-acting coagulation factors, including reduced injection frequency, increased treatment adherence, and improved clinical outcomes, are discussed. Fragment crystallizable (Fc) fusion technology is introduced and the development of long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc (rFVIIIFc) and recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion proteins for the treatment of hemophilia A and B, respectively, are described. Preclinical and clinical studies of rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc showing improved pharmacokinetics over currently available products are reviewed. Expert opinion: Long-acting coagulation factors, including rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc, have the potential to change current paradigms of care for hemophilia A and B, respectively. Less frequent infusions may provide prolonged protection from bleeding and bleed resolution with fewer injections. In addition, long-acting coagulation factors provide an opportunity for improved individualized treatment for hemophilia. © Informa UK, Ltd.

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