Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center

Indianapolis, IN, United States

Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center

Indianapolis, IN, United States
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Meier E.R.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Fasano R.M.,Emory University | Levett P.R.,George Washington University
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2017

All patients with HbSS (SCA) share the same genetic mutation but the clinical phenotype is variable and difficult to predict early in life. A reliable severity predictor would be invaluable toward directing therapeutic decisions in those patients at highest risk of SCA complications. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and Scopus was performed to determine which SCA severity predictors have been validated in pediatric patients. The full text of 94 of the 590 references identified was reviewed based on the title/abstract. Fifty-four articles were included in the analysis. Alpha globin gene number was the most commonly studied severity predictor, followed by fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and reticulocyte count. Alpha thalassemia trait was protective against overt stroke and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) in all but one study, but not frequency of painful crisis or silent cerebral infarct. Two thirds of the HbF studies reported beneficial effects with increasing HbF levels; however, increased HbF levels were not associated with lower hospitalization or stroke rates in others. The ability to predict SCA complications was mixed for all variables, except TCD and absolute reticulocyte count. More reliable predictors are urgently needed to guide therapeutic decisions in children with SCA. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Miller C.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Rice A.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Boylan B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013

Background: Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety and assessment of population trends. Methods: Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA) and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results: NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU) < 0.5 and positive on 42/42 specimens (100%) with NBU ≥ 2.0 and 43/80 specimens (53.8%) with NBU 0.5-1.9. Among specimens with positive NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0-1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5-0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P = 0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, five (23.8%) with 0.7-1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5-1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions: FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5-1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Palla R.,anchi Bonomi Hemophilia And Thrombosis Center | Peyvandi F.,anchi Bonomi Hemophilia And Thrombosis Center | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Shapiro A.D.,Michigan State University
Blood | Year: 2015

Despite the worldwide prevalence of rare bleeding disorders (RBDs), knowledge of these conditions and their management is suboptimal; health care professionals often have little diagnostic and treatment experience with variable access to diagnostic modalities required for accurate identification. Therefore, patients often experience morbidity and mortality due to delayed diagnosis. As RBDs represent a small potential commercial market, few, if any, specific therapies exist for these conditions. As a result, affected individuals commonly face delayed diagnosis, incomplete laboratory evaluation, and limited treatment options. Standardization and customization of coagulation assays, full genome sequencing, and global clotting assays will significantly improve diagnosis of patients with RBDs. In addition, new therapeutic modalities, both recombinant and plasma derived, are emerging, at least in developed countries. Registries and clinical trials have demonstrated decreased bleeding and improved outcomes when patients are appropriately diagnosed and properly treated. Expansion and harmonization of international registries has been initiated to correlate genotype, laboratory, and clinical phenotypes including bleeding severity to improve the diagnosis and therapeutic approach. This review focuses on the latest advances in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of RBDs. ( Blood. 2015; 125(13):2052-2061) © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

Astermark J.,Skåne University Hospital | Donfield S.M.,Rho Inc | Gomperts E.D.,Saban Research Institute | Schwarz J.,Rho Inc | And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2013

Studies of determinants of development of inhibitory Abs to factor VIII in people with hemophilia A indicate a complex process involving multiple factors. The Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort was formed to extend our understanding of the genetic background of risk. The study group contains 833 subjects from 3 independent cohorts: brother pairs and singletons with and without a history of inhibitors, as well as 104 brother pairs discordant for inhibitor status. Using an Illumina iSelect platform, 13 331 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 1081 genes, primarily immune response and immune modifier genes, were typed. Each cohort was analyzed separately with results combined using a meta-analytic technique. After adjustment for potential confounders, 53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be significant predictors of inhibitor status using the criteria of odds ratios in the same direction in all cohorts or allowing for a 20% interval around an odds ratio - 1 in 1 of the 3 and significant in at least 2. Of the 53 markers, 13 had meta P < .001. Eight of the 53 were significant predictors among the discordant pairs. Results support the complexity of the immune response and encourage further research with the goal of understanding the pathways involved. (Blood.

Heiman M.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Gupta S.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
Haemophilia | Year: 2014

Complete plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) deficiency is an exceedingly rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder previously identified and reported in a large Old Order Amish (OOA) kindred in Indiana [Fay et al. Blood 1997; 90: 204]. Mouse models suggest that proteolysis via the plasminogen activator/plasmin system plays a crucial role in reproduction including degradation of the follicular wall during ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and embryogenesis [Leonardsson et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 12446]. We report the obstetric, gynaecological and fertility histories of OOA individuals with homozygous PAI-1 deficiency. In this family, there are 10 affected members identified to date ranging in age between 10 and 32 years, including seven female patients and three male patients. To date, two women have achieved pregnancies without difficulty; however, they experienced antenatal bleeding and preterm labour. The early initiation and continuation of antifibrinolytic agents, Epsilon-aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid, during the pregnancy and in the postpartum period, was believed to be successful in preventing major bleeding complications in our patients with complete PAI-1 deficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shapiro A.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Cooper D.L.,Novo Nordisk AS
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

General guidelines exist for the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) to maintain haemostasis during surgery in congenital haemophilia A and B patients with high responding inhibitors (CHwI). Individual surgical plans are required and based upon historical therapy response, adverse events and anticipated procedure. Surgical interventions are feasible, yet it remains unclear how many US hemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) perform procedures in this fragile population. To better understand the US HTC surgical experience in CHwI patients and the number/types of procedures performed, a 21-question survey was sent to 133 US HTCs, with follow-up for response clarification and to non-responders. 98/133 HTCs (74%) responded, with 87 currently treating CHwI patients. In the last decade, 76/85 HTCs performed 994 surgeries on CHwI patients. Sites were experienced in the following procedures: central line insertion/removal (73 HTCs), dental (58), orthopaedic (52), abdominal (23), cardiovascular (14) and otolaryngologic (11). Experience with orthopaedic surgeries included synovectomies - arthroscopic (23 HTCs), radioisotopic (22), and open (7); joint replacement (18); fracture repair (14); and arthrodesis (8). Treatment modalities included rFVIIa bolus (83 HTCs) or continuous infusions (9), plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC) (55), antifibrinolytics (51), topical haemostatic agents (29), factor VIII (16) and fibrin sealants (14). Protocols for bypassing agents were used by 31/92 (33%) HTCs. Most US HTCs surveyed care for CHwI patients (74%) and have experience in minor surgery; fewer HTCs reported complex orthopaedic surgical experience. Identification of best practices and surgical barriers is required to guide future initiatives to support these patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Krishnan S.,Biogen Idec | Vietri J.,Kantar Health | Furlan R.,Kantar Health | Duncan N.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
Haemophilia | Year: 2015

Severe haemophilia is associated with bleeding into joints and development of arthropathy. Prophylactic treatment with infusion of replacement clotting factor is known to prevent bleeding, preserve joint functioning and result in higher health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than episodic treatment; however, adhering to standard prophylaxis schedules can be difficult, and little is known about the relationship between adherence to prophylactic treatment and outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported adherence to prophylaxis and health outcomes, including HRQoL and bleeding episodes. Adults with haemophilia (n = 55) and caregivers of children with haemophilia (n = 55) in Australia, Canada, and the United States completed an online questionnaire which included measures of HRQoL (SF-12v2 for adults and SF-10 for caregivers of children), self-reported bleeding episodes, and the VERITAS-Pro measure of adherence to prophylaxis in haemophilia. Regression analysis was used to test the association between VERITAS-Pro total score and outcomes. Poorer adherence (higher VERITAS-Pro scores) was associated with a greater number of self-reported bleeding episodes in the past year among adults (p < 0.01), more days of work/school missed among paediatric patients (p < 0.01), and lower physical health status scores among paediatric patients (p < 0.05). This study highlights the benefits of adherence to prophylaxis among those with severe haemophilia and provides evidence for the utility of the VERITAS-Pro by demonstrating a relationship between adherence and outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Berntorp E.,Skåne University Hospital | Shapiro A.D.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Haemophilia care has undergone substantial improvements during the past 40-50 years. Early clotting factor concentrates were not sufficiently refined to enable self-administered treatment at home until the 1970s. Unfortunately, these advances led to transmission of viral diseases including HIV and hepatitis, resulting in an increased burden of morbidity and mortality, especially during the 1980s. Throughout the past two decades, product development, including the advent of recombinant concentrates, has greatly improved the safety and availability of therapy and the focus of care is shifting towards prevention and management of disease sequelae. Long-term substitution therapy (prophylaxis) of the missing clotting factor is the recommended treatment in severe haemophilia, but several research issues remain to be elucidated such as when to start and how to optimise these regimens, and when or whether to stop this expensive treatment. The major side-effect of treatment, development of inhibitors to the infused concentrate, is the main threat to the health of patients and consequently the goal of intense research. Development of new products with improved pharmacokinetics is the next step to improved therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Shapiro A.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Prophylactic treatment with replacement clotting factor is the recommended regimen for patients with severe hemophilia to prevent bleeding episodes. However, currently available replacement clotting factors are limited by their relatively short half-lives and require intravenous injections up to three times weekly to maintain protective levels, which can impact compliance and, thus, patient outcomes. Areas covered: The potential advantages of long-acting coagulation factors, including reduced injection frequency, increased treatment adherence, and improved clinical outcomes, are discussed. Fragment crystallizable (Fc) fusion technology is introduced and the development of long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc (rFVIIIFc) and recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion proteins for the treatment of hemophilia A and B, respectively, are described. Preclinical and clinical studies of rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc showing improved pharmacokinetics over currently available products are reviewed. Expert opinion: Long-acting coagulation factors, including rFVIIIFc and rFIXFc, have the potential to change current paradigms of care for hemophilia A and B, respectively. Less frequent infusions may provide prolonged protection from bleeding and bleed resolution with fewer injections. In addition, long-acting coagulation factors provide an opportunity for improved individualized treatment for hemophilia. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Duncan N.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Shapiro A.,Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center | Ye X.,Baxter Bioscience | Epstein J.,Baxter Bioscience | Luo M.P.,Baxter Bioscience
Haemophilia | Year: 2012

Prophylaxis and adherence to prophylaxis are increasingly recognized as important factors for the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of haemophilia patients. This study aims to assess treatment practices over time, HRQOL and adherence among severe haemophilia A patients in the US. Severe haemophilia A patients or their caregivers participated in a 2009 cross-sectional survey. HRQOL was measured using either PEDS-QL or SF-12; adherence was measured using the VERITAS-Pro. Student t-tests evaluated differences between children vs. adults and self-infusion status. A total of 117 respondents participated in the survey, capturing data for 64 adults (mean age=37.9years) and 53 children (mean age=10.5years). Although 96% of paediatric patients were currently receiving prophylaxis, only 32 (50%) adults reported receiving prophylaxis at some point in their life. Adults who have always been on prophylaxis reported better physical functioning and physical HRQOL (both P<0.05) than adults who had not. The paediatric group reported better adherence compared to the adult group on the total scale (38 vs. 45.8, P<0.05). Children <12years had higher adherence than adolescents 12-18years old (35.5 vs. 40.8; P<0.05). Paediatric patients infused by family members showed better adherence than paediatric self-infusers (P<0.05). This study showed different treatment patterns between paediatric and adult patients and how the patterns impacted HRQOL. It also provided the first standardized evaluation of adherence using the VERITAS-Pro in a US national sample. This study enhances understanding of treatment practices and adherence for the US haemophilia population and may offer insight into where adherence can be improved. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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