Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indore, India

Indian Veterinary Research Institute or IVRI is located at Izztnagar, Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh state. It is India's premier advanced research facility in the field of veterinary medicine and allied branches. It has regional campuses at Mukteshwar, Bangalore, Palampur, Bhopal, Kolkata and Srinagar. Formerly known as Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory, it was renamed in 1925 as Imperial Veterinary Research Institute. The name of the Institute was changed following independence to Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Administrative control of the Institute is currently under Indian Council of Agricultural Research , New Delhi. The Ministry of Education, Govt. of India on the recommendation of University Grants Commission conferred the status of the Deemed to be University on 16 November 1983 under Section 3 of UGC Act . Wikipedia.

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De U.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Mukherjee R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of milk leukocyte in response to intramammary infusion of a biological response modifier (BRM) prepared from Nocardia globerula during bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC) in milk, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, phagocytic activity, production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in milk leukocytes were evaluated after intramammary infusion of BRM in quarters inflicted with SCM. Intramammary infusion of BRM significantly enhanced the SCC in earlier phase with subsequent reduction on day 7 after initiation of treatment. Similarly, the COX activity in milk cell lysate increased on day 3 and reduced on day 5. However reduction in TBC could be observed from day 3 onwards. The phagocytic activity of milk leukocytes was lower in mastitic cows whereas, significant enhancement in phagocytic activity was recorded in post treated cows with BRM. Similarly, the H2O2 production and MPO activities in milk leukocytes were enhanced significantly in diseased cows in response to BRM infusion. Significant enhancement of phagocytic activity, H2O2 and MPO activities indicate the priming of resident milk leukocytes in response to BRM infusion. Initial influx of SCC and raised COX activity also indicate the immunomodulatory activity of BRM. Reduction of TBC could be due to increased leukocytosis or direct microbicidal activity of activated milk cells. In the present study, the biological activity of BRM at standardized dose against bovine SCM is reported for the first time. Development of such therapy is warranted to reduce the drug resistance of microorganisms and contamination of milk with antibiotic residue. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh R.K.,National Research Center on Equines
Antiviral Research | Year: 2011

Sheeppox and goatpox, two endemic capripox infections in India, pose a significant economic threat to small ruminant productivity in the subcontinent. Vaccination of all susceptible sheep and goats is the feasible and sustainable means of control. Availability of effective live attenuated vaccines that are inherently thermostable and development of improved diagnostics provide the opportunities to initiate effective control measures for capripox. All animals older than 4. months can be vaccinated with the current homologous vaccines using a single vaccination by intradermal or subcutaneous routes. The success of the control program needs to be monitored by active surveillance particularly for the presence of virus, as sero-monitoring does not enable the differentiation of infection and vaccination. And also the sero-conversion following capripox vaccination is not detectable enough by the available tools. Sustained control efforts call for socio-economic and political stability, adequate infrastructure and logistic support to store and transport vaccines for reaching out vaccines to the remote end users. Availability of veterinary services, improved extension services for increased awareness among farmers, contribute significantly to the control campaigns. Poor vaccination coverage and in-adequate infrastructure in major parts of the country are some of the major elements that come in the way of effective implementation of building herd immunity through immunization. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Shivachandra S.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Animal health research reviews / Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases | Year: 2011

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in African and Asian countries. The prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of P. multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2. Conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (P. multocida-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a serogroup B-specific PCR assay, multiplex capsular typing system and loop-mediated isothermal amplification techniques) and characterization (restriction endonuclease analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, repetitive extragenic palidromic PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis) are applied in parallel for rapid epidemiological investigations of HS outbreaks. Although several vaccine formulations including alum precipitated, oil adjuvant and multiple emulsion vaccines are commercially available, the quest for suitable broadly protective HS vaccines with long-lasting immunity is on the upsurge. Concurrently, attempts are being made to unravel the mysteries of the pathogen and its virulence factors, pathogenesis and determinants of protective immunity as well as diversity among strains of P. multocida. This review highlights the advances in these various aspects of HS.

Bhanuprakash V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Expert review of vaccines | Year: 2012

The family Poxviridae includes several viruses of medical and veterinary importance. Global concerted efforts combined with an intensive mass-vaccination campaign with highly efficaceious live vaccine of vaccinia virus have led to eradication of smallpox. However, orthopoxviruses affecting domestic animals continue to cause outbreaks in several endemic countries. Different kinds of vaccines starting from conventional inactivated/attenuated to recombinant protein-based vaccines have been used for control of poxvirus infections. Live virus homologous vaccines are currently in use for diseases including capripox, parapox, camelpox and fowlpox, and these vaccines are highly effective in eliciting (with the exception of parapoxviruses) long-lasting immunity. Attenuated strains of poxviruses have been exploited as vectored vaccines to deliver heterologous immunogens, many of them being licensed for use in animals. Worthy of note are vaccinia virus, fowlpox virus, capripoxvirus, parapoxvirus and canary pox, which have been successfully used for developing new-generation vaccines targeting many important pathogens. Remarkable features of these vaccines are thermostability and their ability to engender both cellular and humoral immune responses to the target pathogens. This article updates the important vaccines available for poxviruses of livestock and identifies some of the research gaps in the present context of poxvirus research.

Singh R.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. It is endemic in several African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries, including India. India has recently taken comprehensive steps to deal with PPR through the development and production of potent vaccines and monoclonal-antibody-based diagnostic kits, while also gathering baseline information on the disease situation and human resources. As a result, PPR can now be controlled by focused vaccinations in high-risk populations of sheep and goats, followed by mass vaccination campaigns. Mass vaccination campaigns must achieve high levels of herd immunity (70% to 80%) to block the epidemic cycle of the virus. With the tools currently available, disease control and subsequent eradication programmes for PPR may be a feasible option, following the example of the National Rinderpest Eradication Programme, which has successfully eradicated rinderpest from India. An understanding of the cultural and socio-economic circumstances of goat and sheep owners and a keen watch on the endemic nature of PPR in neighbouring countries will enhance the success of this approach. Coordinated efforts from all stakeholders, combined with proper funding and execution of control programmes, will be needed to achieve the goal of a PPR-free India. In addition, the availability of effective combined vaccines of PPR with goat pox or sheep pox offers a cost-effective way of simultaneously launching control programmes against all three of these diseases.

Das G.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Khan F.A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: The present review addresses summer anoestrus in buffaloes. The condition is a major impediment in the improvement of reproductive as well as productive efficiency in buffalo. Factors affecting summer anoestrus include environment, nutrition and management. The environmental factors especially longer day length and increased temperature with high humidity pre-dispose to the condition when the nutritive status of buffaloes is poor. Buffaloes with summer anoestrus fail to exhibit oestrus as a result of aberration in the endocrine profile leading to ovarian inactivity. Increased day length with high environmental temperature causes hyper-prolactinaemia, suppressing the secretion of gonadotrophins, which leads to an alteration in ovarian steroidogenesis. Heat stress produced during summer also affects folliculogenesis, follicular fluid microenvironment and oocyte quality. A large number of hormonal regimens have been used with varying degree of efficacy in terms of oestrus induction and conception rate. A combined strategy of improvement in environment, nutrition and management is pre-requisite for hormonal manipulation in order to improve productivity in summer anoestrus buffaloes. A brief description of summer anoestrus with special reference to factors responsible, endocrinology, deleterious effects on reproductive system and possible remedial measures is presented in this review. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ghosh S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Nagar G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2014

Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme. © 2014 Malaria Research Center. All Rights reserved.

Talukder S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma B.D.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

India stood first for millet production in the world and plays a significant role in meat production and consumption too. To meet the demand of health conscious consumers for healthy and nutritious meat food item, the incorporation of millet grains and its byproducts to the meat products by the processors can serve the purpose. The multidimensional positive nutritional and functional characteristics millet grain not only improve the acceptability of the meat products but also increase its own demand as a main coarse food grain in competition to the wheat and rice over the world. © 2015, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Gokulakrishnan P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Vergis J.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Achieving food safety is a global health goal and the food-borne diseases take a major check on global health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods and immunology-based methods may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield a result. Obviously, this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid diagnostic methods. The advent of molecular techniques has led to the development of a diverse array of assay for quality control of meat and meat products. Rapid analysis using DNA hybridization and amplification techniques offer more sensitivity and specificity to get results than culture based methods as well as dramatic reduction in the time to get results. Many methods have also achieved the high level automation, facilitating their application as routine sample screening assays. This review is intended to provide an overview of the molecular methods for microbiological quality control of meat and meat products. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Khan F.A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Das G.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in follicular fluid nitric oxide (NO) and ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations with varying follicle size and functional status, and stage of estrous cycle in buffalo. The main effect of follicle size on NO concentration and size-by-status interaction were statistically significant (P<0.05). Small follicles had a higher (P<0.05) NO concentration compared to medium and large follicles. Further, estrogen-active (EA) small follicles showed increased (P<0.05) NO concentrations than the corresponding estrogen-inactive (EI) follicles. Within EA category, higher (P<0.01) concentrations were recorded in small compared to medium and large follicles. There was no significant main effect of stage (P>0.1) on NO concentration but the stage-by-size interaction was significant (P<0.05) with medium follicles showing a higher (P<0.05) concentration during late luteal stage compared to the mid luteal stage. During early and mid luteal stages, higher (P<0.05) NO concentrations were recorded in small than in medium follicles. A significant (P<0.01) main effect of size on AA concentration was observed with higher values in medium than in small and large follicles. Size-by-status interaction for AA approached statistical significance (P<0.06) with higher (P<0.05) concentrations recorded in medium than in large EA follicles. The main effect of stage on AA concentration was, however, non-significant (P>0.1) but the stage-by-size interaction approached statistical significance (P<0.06) with lower (P<0.05) levels recorded in large compared to medium size follicles during the follicular stage. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the concentrations of follicular fluid NO and AA vary according to the follicle size, functional status and stage of estrous cycle suggesting their possible role in process of follicular development during estrous cycle in buffalo. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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