Indian Tobacco Company ITC

Secunderabad, India

Indian Tobacco Company ITC

Secunderabad, India
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Prasad J.V.N.S.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Korwar G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Rao K.V.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Mandal U.K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2010

The 3 × 2 m spacing currently used for eucalyptus plantations in the state of Andhra Pradesh, southern India does not permit intercropping from the second year. This discourages small landholders who need regular income from taking up eucalyptus plantations and benefiting from the expanding market for pulpwood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam district (Andhra Pradesh) for over 4 years from August 2001 to November 2005 to examine whether wide-row planting and grouping of certain tree rows will facilitate extended intercropping without sacrificing wood yield. Eucalyptus planted in five-spatial arrangements in agroforestry [3 × 2 m (farmers' practice), 6 × 1 m, 7 × 1.5 m paired rows (7 × 1.5 PR), 11 × 1 m paired rows (11 × 1 PR) and 10 × 1.5 m triple rows (10 × 1.5 TR)] was compared with sole tree stands at a constant density of 1,666 trees ha-1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was intercropped during the post-rainy seasons from 2001 to 2004, and fodder grasses (Panicum maximum and Brachiaria ruziziensis) were intercropped during both the seasons of 2005. At 51 months after planting, different spatial arrangements did not significantly affect height and diameter at breast height (dbh). Total dry biomass of eucalyptus in different spatial arrangements ranged between 59.5 and 52.9 Mg ha-1, the highest being with 6 × 1 m and the lowest with 10 × 1.5 TR, but treatment differences were not significant. The widely spaced paired row (11 × 1 PR) and triple row (10 × 1.5 TR) arrangements produced 62-73% of sole cowpea yield in 2003, 59-66% of sole cowpea yield in 2004, and 79-94% of sole fodder in 2005. In contrast, the 3 × 2 m spacing allowed only 17-45% of sole crop yields in these years. The better performance of intercrops in widely spaced eucalyptus was likely because of limited competition from trees for light and water. Intercropping of eucalyptus in these wider rows gave 14% greater net returns compared with intercropping in eucalyptus spaced at 3 × 2 m, 19% greater returns compared with that from sole tree woodlot and 263% greater returns compared with that from sole crops. Therefore, in regions where annual rainfall is around 1,000 mm and soils are fairly good, eucalyptus at a density of 1,666 plants per ha can be planted in uniformly spaced wide-rows (6 m) or paired rows at an inter-pair spacing of 7-11 m for improving intercrop performance without sacrificing wood production. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Prasad J.V.N.S.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Korwar G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Rao K.V.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Mandal U.K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Leucaena leucocephala is widely used as raw material for the manufacture of paper and packaging material and in biomass based power plants in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Experiments were conducted to study the affect of tree density on the growth, biomass partitioning and wood productivity. Six treatments 1 × 1 m, 1.3 × 1.3 m, 3 × 0.75 m, 3 × 1 m, 5 × 0.8 m and 3 × 2 m corresponding to a tree density of 10,000, 6666, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 were evaluated with leucaena variety K636. At 51 months after planting, spacings significantly influenced tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and biomass partitioning. Wider tree rows resulted in greater tree height and diameter growth resulting in higher per plant productivity. At harvest, 70% of trees in 3 × 2 m attained a diameter of more than 7.5 cm, while 35% of the trees attained the same DBH in 1 × 1 m spacing. Increased spacing levels decreased the relative amount of growth allocated to the bole of the tree. Marketable biomass yield was highest with 1 × 1 m spacing. Spacing of 3 × 0.75 m produced marketable biomass comparable to that of 1 × 1 m and greater proportion of stems with more than 5 cm diameter. Leucaena can be grown at 3 × 0.75 m spacing either for pulpwood or fuelwood depending on the prevailing market prices and demand. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Prasad J.V.N.S.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Korwar G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Rao K.V.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Srinivas K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2011

On-farm experiments were conducted in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh from 2001 to 2006 to evaluate the biomass productivity, intercrop yields and profitability of Eucalyptus tereticornis clonal and Leucaena leucocephala variety K-636 based systems. Trees were planted at a spacing of 3 × 2 m and evaluated at three locations. Height growth was significantly higher in leucaena during the 4 year where as difference in diameter growth was not significant. Biomass partitioning to the bole was high in case of leucaena, ranged from 83% in 2. 5-5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) trees to 89% in 12. 5-15 cm DBH trees and in eucalyptus clones the corresponding values were 71% in 2. 5-5 cm DBH trees and 83% in 12. 5-15 cm DBH trees. Marketable biomass productivity was higher with leucaena (95 Mg ha-1) in comparison to eucalyptus (87 Mg ha-1). Competition effects of trees on intercrops were observed from the 2 year (2002 post-rainy season). Intercrop yields were 45% of the sole crop in eucalyptus system and 36% in leucaena system during the 2 year. Sole eucalyptus and leucaena plantations and intercropping systems recorded higher gross and net returns over arable cropping. Therefore, it can be concluded that leucaena variety K636 and eucalyptus clonal based agroforestry systems are profitable alternatives to arable cropping under rainfed conditions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Prasad J.V.N.S.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Korwar G.R.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Rao K.V.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Srinivas K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2010

Leucaena leucocephala is cultivated at close spacings that do not permit intercropping. This has been a discouraging factor for small landholders who need regular income to establish leucaena plantations and benefit from the rapidly expanding market for wood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from August 2001 to January 2006, to study the effect of reducing tree density and modifying tree geometry on the growth of leucaena and productivity of intercrops. The inter-row spacing of 1.3 m in farmers' practice was increased up to 13 m to examine whether wide-row planting and grouping of certain rows would facilitate extended intercropping without sacrificing wood yield. Tree density treatments tried were 1.3 × 1.3 m, 3 × 0.75 m, 3 × 1 m, 5 × 0.8 m and 3 × 2 m which gives densities of 5919, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 trees ha1, respectively. Tree geometry treatments tested were 7 × 1 m paired row spacing (7 × 1 PR), 10 × 1 m triple row spacing (10 × 1 TR), and 13 × 1 m four rows (13 × 1 FR) with a constant tree population of 2500 trees ha1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was the intercrop. While changes in tree density affected diameter at breast height (DBH) significantly, modification of tree geometry did not affect tree height and DBH. Marketable wood and dry biomass productivity was highest with 3 × 0.75 m spacing, and reducing tree density and alteration of tree geometry reduced the biomass considerably. In 2001, 2002 and 2003 seasons, respectively, tree spacing at 3 m produced mean yields of 97, 23 and 11% of the sole crop cowpea yield whereas modified tree geometry treatments produced mean yields of 97, 61 and 20% of sole crop yield. The widest spacing (13 × 1 FR) recorded 95, 73 and 30% of the sole crop yields during 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. Net returns from intercropping of leucaena in 3 × 0.75 m spacing was 36% higher than that of the farmers' practice. Although wider tree geometry treatments recorded lower net returns, they provided higher intercrop yields and returns in the first two years of plantation establishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that in regions where annual rainfall is around 1000 mm, leucaena can be planted at a spacing of 3 × 0.75 m for improving intercrop performance, higher tree productivity and returns. © Cambridge University Press 2010.

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